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# In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western

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In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2012, 17:56
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61% (02:38) correct 39% (01:46) wrong based on 105

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Question 2
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72% (01:35) correct 28% (00:13) wrong based on 94

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In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces. Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.
Q) According to the passage, which of the following is probably true of the storage spaces mentioned in line 14?
A. They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
C. Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. outline the methods by which resources were managed within a particular group of communities
B. account for the distribution of wealth within a particular group of communities
C. provide support for a hypothesis concerning the social structure of a particular society
D. explain how political leadership changed in a particular historical situation
E. present new evidence that contradicts previous theories about a particular historical situation

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

Last edited by JarvisR on 03 Jul 2015, 03:38, edited 1 time in total.
OA updated
If you have any questions
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2014, 05:01
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monirjewel wrote:
Another Q related to this passage....
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.

D looks fine. In the passage, the author suggests that difference in burial artifacts is derived from difference in distribution of wealth. This finding, if true, will weaken the argument of the author by suggesting that the difference in burial artifacts is due to religious factors rather than possessions :D
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2015, 01:13
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eybrj2 wrote:
A. They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
C. Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.

I can't understand logic of this question:

B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
Passage says "storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers)" - so this answer is wrong because this storage spaces only near and this position doesn't make them ceremonial.

D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
Passage says "Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food" - so this is wrong because there no direct evidences of food storaging

E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.
About this passage says two things: "storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas" - so if we use logic from answer B then this is incorrect answer too, because this storage spaces only near some comunal space but this position doesn't make them communal.
Second, the passage says "their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces."
But here is a problem because "apparently" means "You use apparently to refer to something that seems to be true, although you are not sure whether it is or not." (according to CollinsCobuild dictionary). Therefore "apparently" it's like possibly and we again can't say exactly that this is comunal space.
So why it is correct answer?
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2013, 08:48

My Pick:

1) D

2) C

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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2013, 18:03
1. E
In the passage states that, That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas. Also passage states that Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food.
2. C
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2013, 18:05
Another Q related to this passage....
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.
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MGMAT SC SUMMARY: http://gmatclub.com/forum/mgmat-sc-summary-of-fourth-edition-152753.html

Sentence Correction: http://gmatclub.com/forum/sentence-correction-strategies-and-notes-91218.html

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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2013, 11:52
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eybrj2 wrote:
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces. Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.
Q) According to the passage, which of the following is probably true of the storage spaces mentioned in line 14?
A. They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
C. Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.

The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. outline the methods by which resources were managed within a particular group of communities
B. account for the distribution of wealth within a particular group of communities
C. provide support for a hypothesis concerning the social structure of a particular society
D. explain how political leadership changed in a particular historical situation
E. present new evidence that contradicts previous theories about a particular historical situation

Why not E?

I correct myself E and C
Anybody wants to provide OA?

Cheers
J
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2014, 05:03
jlgdr wrote:
eybrj2 wrote:
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces. Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.
Q) According to the passage, which of the following is probably true of the storage spaces mentioned in line 14?
A. They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
C. Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.

The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. outline the methods by which resources were managed within a particular group of communities
B. account for the distribution of wealth within a particular group of communities
C. provide support for a hypothesis concerning the social structure of a particular society
D. explain how political leadership changed in a particular historical situation
E. present new evidence that contradicts previous theories about a particular historical situation

Why not E?

I correct myself E and C
Anybody wants to provide OA?

Cheers
J

OA is E and C, according to GMATprep. Congrat
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2014, 11:56
Yes!! Nailed it, thanks buddy!
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2015, 05:00
Nice passage. Took 3 minutes.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2016, 09:05
The official answer to the third question ("D") is horrible too. It seems to be based on the assumption that only some people were buried with possessions because only they belonged to a particular religion. It seems quite a stretch, and there is no evidence in the passage to support the assumption that there was more than one religion active in this small community (and frankly this seems highly unlikely that this would have happened at all in this period of history. We're not talking about 21st century New York!)
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2016, 01:02
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5 mins. All correct. Feel free to message if you have any specific query.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2016, 02:57
E , C , D all answers correct yeye . Seems passage is easy
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2016, 01:10
-The author is seeking to prove the existence of some sort of hierarchy in a certain society and is providing examples to justify the same
Took 5 mins in total , including 2 mins to read

1. "That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas"
The above clearly indicate that the food stored in the storage spaces was used by the community as a whole and not by a select few. Hence option (E) is the right answer.

3. "Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials."

The author states that artifacts that one is buried with indicate the societal position of the deceased person. The argument would be most weakened if it were proved that the deceased person had not connection with the objects that he was buried with.

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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western   [#permalink] 08 Dec 2016, 01:10
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