In the industrialized nations, the last century has : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# In the industrialized nations, the last century has

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In the industrialized nations, the last century has [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2004, 16:17
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In the industrialized nations, the last century has witnessed a shortening of the average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours. Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century, many people assume that the same trend has obtained through history, and therefore, prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival.

We cannot, of course, directly test this assumption. However, a study of primitive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. The Mbuti of central Africa, for instance, spend only a few hours each day in hunting, gathering, and tending to other economic necessities. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization.

Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?

A: People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonidustrialized societies.
B: An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
C: Industrializaton involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
D: It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
E: As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.
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11 Oct 2004, 16:40
I will go with (C) on this one.

Basically it does not have any specific trend per say.
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11 Oct 2004, 17:20
I'd go with B
Although C explains the difference in leisure time b/w the early and current industrialization stage, it does not explain why there has been more of such time in prehistoric times. I think B links the passage together.
Prehistoric times: less work
early industrialization: more work
late industrialization: less work
The above is what B says
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Re: CR - WorkDay [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2004, 22:41
I am stuck between B and E.
However, the sentence ' Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century', pulled me towards E.

B needs further support because the early stages of industrialization may not necessarily mean 1880s (as in the extended workday of 1880).

dj wrote:
In the industrialized nations, the last century has witnessed a shortening of the average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours. Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century, many people assume that the same trend has obtained through history, and therefore, prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival.

We cannot, of course, directly test this assumption. However, a study of primitive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. The Mbuti of central Africa, for instance, spend only a few hours each day in hunting, gathering, and tending to other economic necessities. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization.

Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?

A: People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonidustrialized societies.
B: An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
C: Industrializaton involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
D: It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
E: As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.

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12 Oct 2004, 04:04
I have the feeling B is opposed to the stem :

"The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies"

A: Wrong cf E
B: Wrong to me
C: between the worst... I choose this one
D: Nothing in the stem enables us to consider it as granted
E: Opposed to the Mbuti example
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12 Oct 2004, 14:08
Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?

A: People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonidustrialized societies.
B: An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
C: Industrializaton involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
D: It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
E: As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.

I am going for the contrarian answer here:
A- Making a definitive statement which can be disproved.
B- Close, but IMO the peculiar notion proposed makes it a bit too strong for my taste.
C. The passge did not address the nature of the jobs, whether the tedium and monotony and their tradeoff with leisure, bit too much of an inference.
D- the 'likely' here makes it a bit more appealing than B IMO, could be wrong:-).
E- Too strong.
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12 Oct 2004, 14:12
I'd go with B
Although C explains the difference in leisure time b/w the early and current industrialization stage, it does not explain why there has been more of such time in prehistoric times. I think B links the passage together.
Prehistoric times: less work
early industrialization: more work
late industrialization: less work
The above is what B says

I am not sure that the author says/observes that prehistoric times == less work, it is also quite possible that people worked hard in prehistoric times just before industrialization and it would not be peculiar?
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12 Oct 2004, 23:50
cannot decide betw D/E

i think E goes little beyond the evidence provided

D can be inferred from "Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization."

so D it is

curious to know OA???
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13 Oct 2004, 01:00
Actually, important thing to understand here is difference between "industrialized society" and "process of industrialization". The author said "the stages of process of industrialization" caused to decreased workhours and "industrialized society" has nothing to do with decreased no of working hours.
Considering above,
"A" and "D" - out bcoz they talk about "industrializedsocieties"
Keep "B" aside
"C" - IMHO is "out of scope, bcoz "tedious and monotonous jobs have nothing to do with argument
"E" - out, not supported by the stem

Skirmish is between "B" and "D", i would go for "B" on this.

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13 Oct 2004, 04:54
I'm with C on this one. Yes,. there is no specific data to confirm any trend. It seems that the short or long workday evolves as the need be.
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Re: CR - WorkDay [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2004, 06:00
dj wrote:
Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?

D: It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.

I wonder why none of you think that D could be the answer. All the premises are based on the workday of the industialized nations; question ask about the industializing nations. It is likely that the new nations will follow the trend that industrialized nations followed, that is, eventually, the workday will be shortened.

isn't that it?

I think B is too strong to be judged from any of the premise. rest are not supported anyway.
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13 Oct 2004, 07:42
I will go with D. Whats the OA?

The passage concludes that shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization.

D says that if industrialization continues, the workday is likely to get reduced...
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13 Oct 2004, 09:01
First choice D. without looking at the answer.
13 Oct 2004, 09:01
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