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# In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were

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In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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Updated on: 04 Apr 2017, 23:04
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In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men; these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop.

Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the evidence used to refute the conclusion above?

(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.
(B) When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase.
(C) The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.
(D) If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women.
(E) The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.

Please help on this...i was not at all able to relate the options with the conclusion which will help to refute it.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Originally posted by sagarsabnis on 30 Dec 2009, 15:32.
Last edited by abhimahna on 04 Apr 2017, 23:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2009, 17:36
I go for E. What is official answer ?

Let us put this whole thing in simple terms:

Fact: A Impacted B. Statement: A will also impact C.

To prove this is wrong, we need to pick answer which shows C is different from B.
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2010, 22:12
This seems like a tough one. See my opinions in blue below.

sagarsabnis wrote:
In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men; these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop.

Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the evidence used to refute the conclusion above?

(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.Accountant etc. incomes remained high as teachers etc. incomes were falling. In my opinion, this is saying that women started entering all of the fields mentioned (teachers etc. and accountant etc.) at the same time. If that is true, according to the assumption of the passage, you would have seen the salaries of accountants etc. fall as well. This point refutes that assumption by saying the high levels of income/prestige of accountants etc. remained the same.
(B) When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase. This would not refute, it would help the argument.
(C) The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.This doesn't refute. Irrelevant because it is discussing the pay between teachers/secretaries and bank tellers, not the difference of the pay of the group as a whole.
(D) If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women. This doesn't refute. Out of context of passage. Too extreme.
(E) The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.Too extreme. Passage says nothing about economic and sociological forces.

Please help on this...i was not at all able to relate the options with the conclusion which will help to refute it.
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2010, 23:21
mission2011 wrote:
I go for E. What is official answer ?

Let us put this whole thing in simple terms:

Fact: A Impacted B. Statement: A will also impact C.

To prove this is wrong, we need to pick answer which shows C is different from B.

Premise:
A Impacted ( decrease: pay and status )B
Con:A will Impact ( decrease: pay and status ) C

Anser E: says C is different from B. (because C governed by "X" and B doesn't )
C governing by X cannot guarantee that.. Pay and and Status will decrease or increase or constant. So, E is not correct answer.

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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2010, 00:37
sagarsabnis wrote:
can some one explain me the option A i am still not able to understand it.

Option A says that when women largely occupied professions such as teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries, accountants, lawyers, and physicians got their current relatively high levels of income and status

It just says that the two events happened at the same time.
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2010, 06:55
mikeCoolBoy wrote:
sagarsabnis wrote:
can some one explain me the option A i am still not able to understand it.

Option A says that when women largely occupied professions such as teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries, accountants, lawyers, and physicians got their current relatively high levels of income and status

It just says that the two events happened at the same time.

i go with E.Can someone post the OA plz!!
TIA
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2010, 07:15
ill go for E... what reasons have been given by others on top for A are hanging on only assumptions, which do not relate to anything stated in argument.....
however E gives a reason by making the two sets of job varying from each other so what is true for one need not be true for the other
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2010, 20:32
what is the source? oa doesnt seem to be correct.....
what is the expl?
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2010, 01:45
Pls explain OA , IMO its E ..

http://way2freshers.com/gmat/gmat-verba ... ons-4.html
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2010, 07:40
even i was looking for the explanation hence i posted it...
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2010, 21:19
sagarsabnis wrote:
even i was looking for the explanation hence i posted it...

Passage :
In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men; these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop.

Conclusion : the income and prestige of these professions (teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries) will also drop.

Here we are looking which will give strength, if it is true. Hence ans will be Option : A
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2010, 04:06
sagarsabnis wrote:
In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men; these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop.

Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the evidence used to refute the conclusion above?

(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.
(B) When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase.
(C) The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.
(D) If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women.
(E) The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.

Please help on this...i was not at all able to relate the options with the conclusion which will help to refute it.

Explanation:
The above question is a Cause and Effect Reasoning situation.
Cause = If women enter a certain profession
Effect = The profession slip in pay and status

Now if we can prove that there is another cause for this effect, we can refute the conclusion in the question.

Option A does that perfectly
Its says that: Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.
This means that women entering the profession is not the reason for the slip in status or pay in the professions of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries. The slipped happened due to some other factors which affected only these profession and didn't effect the other professions like Accountants, lawyers, and physicians. The option doesn't discriminate whether these professions were held by men or women. It could be that the supply of these profession was too high that led to decrease in status and pay of these professions.

Option E cannot be correct for a reason which isn't that logically but it does hold good in GMAT upto some extent. The GMAC would never make an answer which would be biased or show case the discrimination of women (specially downfall) in the current society. The words - " today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces" show a sense of discrimination and partiallity with respect to women and hence wouldn't stand a chance of being the correct answer!

I might be wrong in my explanation of Option E but Option A does get the credit as the perfect answer as per the CR rules
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2010, 07:28
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2010, 08:13
angel2009 wrote:

sagarsabnis wrote:

A little lost now as sagarsabnis posted the OA is A and now you have posted the OA as E...
Can you please check and confirm!
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2010, 08:16
jeeteshsingh wrote:
sagarsabnis wrote:
In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men; these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop.

Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the evidence used to refute the conclusion above?

(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.
(B) When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase.
(C) The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.
(D) If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women.
(E) The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.

Please help on this...i was not at all able to relate the options with the conclusion which will help to refute it.

Explanation:
The above question is a Cause and Effect Reasoning situation.
Cause = If women enter a certain profession
Effect = The profession slip in pay and status

Now if we can prove that there is another cause for this effect, we can refute the conclusion in the question.

Option A does that perfectly
Its says that: Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.
This means that women entering the profession is not the reason for the slip in status or pay in the professions of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries. The slipped happened due to some other factors which affected only these profession and didn't effect the other professions like Accountants, lawyers, and physicians. The option doesn't discriminate whether these professions were held by men or women. It could be that the supply of these profession was too high that led to decrease in status and pay of these professions.

Option E cannot be correct for a reason which isn't that logically but it does hold good in GMAT upto some extent. The GMAC would never make an answer which would be biased or show case the discrimination of women (specially downfall) in the current society. The words - " today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces" show a sense of discrimination and partiallity with respect to women and hence wouldn't stand a chance of being the correct answer!

I might be wrong in my explanation of Option E but Option A does get the credit as the perfect answer as per the CR rules

thank you
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2010, 09:10
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(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.

I have one problem with OA as 'A' it was never said that in the option A women entered in both the accountants,etc., and teachers ,etc., profession at the same number

without that we can't assume that women entered in both types of profession

I still feel that OA is E.

I was disappointed to see OA as A as I can't relate the answer to it. but felt better when I saw posts which states that OA as E
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2010, 09:10
please post the OA and source and if possible official explanation
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Re: In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2010, 13:39
silasaaa2 wrote:
(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.

I have one problem with OA as 'A' it was never said that in the option A women entered in both the accountants,etc., and teachers ,etc., profession at the same number

without that we can't assume that women entered in both types of profession

I still feel that OA is E.

I was disappointed to see OA as A as I can't relate the answer to it. but felt better when I saw posts which states that OA as E

I agree with you!
A does not state that women entered those fields at about the same time as the pay and status of teacher, etc. slipped.

E looks right to me. Yes the passage does not mention anything about social and economic structure; however, it is an "assumption" question. In questions like this, you must bring external information from the answer choice to support or undermine a conclusion. If the social and economic structures govering the job fields are different, "the income and prestige of these professions will also drop" may not be justified.
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In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2011, 21:06
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men; these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop.
Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the evidence used to refute the conclusion above?

(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.
(B) When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase.
(C) The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.
(D) If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women.
(E) The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.
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Re: Slipping of Pay and status [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2011, 12:58
(A) Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped. -increasing pay in such professions have no bearing on payscales of teaching profession.(B) When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase. -out of scope; if anyting instead of undermining , supports the conclusion(C) The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.-more demand should actually increase pay, not decrease it
(D) If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women.-whether majority of such professionals are women now or 20 years later, doesnt affect the arguement either way(E) The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.-CORRECT-IF this is true, this can put forward a different reason for changing pay scale other than the one assumed by the author. hence it undermines the author's belieff.
Re: Slipping of Pay and status   [#permalink] 15 Oct 2011, 12:58

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