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# Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability

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Math Expert
Joined: 02 Aug 2009
Posts: 5875
Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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Updated on: 03 Feb 2015, 19:57
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33
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

23% (01:29) correct 77% (01:29) wrong based on 966 sessions

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1. "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.
The argument above is flawed because it
(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question
(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching

Kudos for best explanation

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Originally posted by chetan2u on 02 Feb 2015, 19:59.
Last edited by chetan2u on 03 Feb 2015, 19:57, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the title of the question
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Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2015, 20:29
I am deliberating between a and e.

chetan2u wrote:
1. "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.
The argument above is flawed because it
(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question
(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching

Kudos for best explanation

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Kudos to you, for helping me with some KUDOS.

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Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2015, 20:51
1
1
Ans : I feel , it is A

(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question-------YES , it makes sense because we cannot conclude that james suffers from this condition just because he is watching TV for more than 8 hours.Partial cause --> might exist pointing to the possibility that James falls in the 5% bracket

(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day--------- WRONG---The argument explicitly mentions that 95 % of children watching more than 7 hours of TV a day

(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time----WRONG---We are not bothered of symptoms here

(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day---WRONG--The arguments explicitly mentions -James watch TV roughly 8 hours a day

(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching---WRONG---The final statement in the argument(conclusion ) says that--"It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day."----So , there is a sense of only possibility here by using the words " very likely". So we cannot conclude--The argument does not allow for other causes....

Please correct me if I am wrong

Kudos if this helps :D
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Posts: 5875
Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2015, 23:01
shriramvelamuri wrote:
I am deliberating between a and e.

chetan2u wrote:
1. "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.
The argument above is flawed because it
(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question
(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching

Kudos for best explanation

hi shriram...
the OA will be posted shortly...
the reason it has not been posted is the answer would force the brain to focus on the answer given rather than finding faults in various options.....

however i can tell u that there is a shift of focus in argument so you can relook into the answer
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Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2015, 07:54
hi chetan2u,

Could you comment on my post if it is any correct?
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Posts: 5875
Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2015, 07:58
1991sehwag wrote:
hi chetan2u,

Could you comment on my post if it is any correct?

hi sehwag,
A is the most sought after wrong answer...
please read the argument and try to find a shift in scope...
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Posts: 5875
Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2015, 20:15
7
2
hi,
the question is of 700+ difficulty. reason : there is a subtle shift in focus/scope..
the argument basically tells us about TV watching habits of people suffering from ' inability to concentrate'. It never tells us that it is watching TV, a habit which is leading to this problem..
So its important that we donot fall prey to this subtle change and reread the stem to see through the problem...
now lets look at the choices available...

(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question..
Does the author ever mention that watching TV is the cause, partial or main. No, she doesn't.
She just says that these people watch TV for more than 7 hrs. So the most likely choosen wrong answer.

(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
this statement tells us that the author has failed to establish a link of people suffering the disease to their watching TV. So correct
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
Can be easily eliminated
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
Can be eliminated as the author does say that he watches TV for more than 7 hrs
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching
same as A. Author never discusses watching TV as a cause
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Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2015, 02:45
chetan2u wrote:
1. "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.
The argument above is flawed because it
(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question
(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching

Kudos for best explanation

I have to admit that I was torn between A and B. I ended up chosing B.

A) "a factor that may only be a partial cause" The only factor provided by the study is "kid's television watching". Now we could cast some doubt on the study, saying that it is not accurate, or that there are other studies portraying different results, but there is no trace of these two anywhere in the argument. Thus we don't have evidence to belie the studies' findings and if we don't have evidence to belie them, then they shuold be accurate. If they are accurate this statement is false.

B) the argument concludes that: "It is very likely that James suffers from this condition". We are not sure whether james suffers of this condition in the first place.In other terms His staying 8 hours a day in front of a tv screen doesn't assure us that he suffers of this condition. The argument is faulty of assuming it, thus this is the flaw and the correct answer.
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Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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Updated on: 07 Sep 2016, 14:14
7
4
B it is
After sorting through all the blah blah in the argument;-
95% of 7 year old kids who suffer from Inability to focus (ITF) watch more than 7 hours of TV.

Assess this argument
95% of patient with anaemia have grey hair. (100 patient = 95 have grey hair=> quite possible)
Does it means that 95% of grey hair people suffer from Anaemia -No (1 billion old people with grey hair... are 950,000,000 anaemic => ABSURD )

Similarly
Having four legs and a tail defines an animal=yes
Does all normal cows have four legs and a tail=yes
Are all cows animal? = yes
Are all animals Cow?= No , the set of animals is huge and cow is just a subset of animals. So are dogs, monkeys, bears, cheetah... etc etc

Similarly
Water is a beverage=yes
Vodka is a beverage=yes
thus water is vodka = no

Coming back to our original question
95% of 7 year old patient = +7hours TV
Jimmy is 7 year old and watches 8 hour TV= Jimmy has ITF = no
Why= because Jimmy is not a patient Jimmy is a normal kid.
Argument tells us that 95% of ill kids watch more than 7 hour of TV
BUT the argument tell us nothing about what percent of total population of 7 year old are suffering from ITF. (Total kids = Healthy + Inability to focus )
OPTION B reinstates the same logic in other words.
(B) Fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day

This is a classic case of mistaken syllogistic reversal that causes mistaken cause-effect error.

"Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.
The argument above is flawed because it
(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question
(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 19 Jun 2016, 05:24.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 07 Sep 2016, 14:14, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 06:41
chetan2u wrote:
1. "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.
The argument above is flawed because it
(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question
(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching

Kudos for best explanation

Argument says that 95% of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television ...
but it fails to conclude whether a majority of children watch, on average, more than seven hours of television has same inability or not.
in nutshell argument places effect earlier than cause but it failed to conclude whether cause is leading to effect.
Ans B
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Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2017, 11:25
chetan2u wrote:
1. "Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability to focus on any topic for a prolonged period of time, and is especially common among children five to ten years old. A recent study has shown that 95 percent of seven-year-old children with this condition watch, on average, more than seven hours of television a day. It is therefore very likely that James, age seven, suffers from this condition, since he watches roughly eight hours of television a day.
The argument above is flawed because it
(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question
(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching

Kudos for best explanation

The argument says that 95%of the children who have this condition watch 7 hours of tv and fails to convey the actual % of 7 year olds who have this condition. thats why B
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Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2017, 10:26
Excellent one. Option B needs a very careful examination before selecting it.
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Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2018, 07:59
chetan2u wrote:
hi,
the question is of 700+ difficulty. reason : there is a subtle shift in focus/scope..
the argument basically tells us about TV watching habits of people suffering from ' inability to concentrate'. It never tells us that it is watching TV, a habit which is leading to this problem..
So its important that we donot fall prey to this subtle change and reread the stem to see through the problem...
now lets look at the choices available...

(A) cites as a direct causal mechanism a factor that may only be a partial cause of the condition in question..
Does the author ever mention that watching TV is the cause, partial or main. No, she doesn't.
She just says that these people watch TV for more than 7 hrs. So the most likely choosen wrong answer.

(B) fails to indicate the chances of having this condition among seven-year-old children who watch more than 7 hours of television a day
this statement tells us that the author has failed to establish a link of people suffering the disease to their watching TV. So correct
(C) limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time
Can be easily eliminated
(D) fails to consider the possibility that James may be among the 5 percent of children who do not watch more than 7 hours of television a day
Can be eliminated as the author does say that he watches TV for more than 7 hrs
(E) does not allow for other causes of this condition besides television watching
same as A. Author never discusses watching TV as a cause

I was close to B, but marked C believing that 'limits the description of the symptoms of this condition to an inability to focus for a prolonged period of time' means that James watching the the TV for more than 8 hours (which is the symptom) is being incorrectly related to the condition (which is inability to focus for a prolonged period of time). I thought that just because James is exhibiting a symptom, it cannot be related to the condition. He could be alright and could be watching too much TV just out of boredom or loneliness. My question to you is what is exactly 'the symptom of this condition' in option C?
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Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2018, 03:32
C might very well be correct. It does take a symptom as indicative of a condition.

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Re: Inability to concentrate" is a condition characterized by an inability   [#permalink] 13 Jun 2018, 03:32
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