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Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of

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Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2016, 08:12
samichange wrote:
enigma123 wrote:
Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to ensure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?

(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.


[Reveal] Spoiler: DOUBT
Guys - can someone please let me know what's the reasoning behind correct answer B?



This one is a toughie and confusing one!!

The argument concludes that the since the profits made by the industrialist were ONLY 4 billion which does not count as a SUBSTANTIAL PROFIT, the industrialist DID NOT promote the war in order to make SUBSTANTIAL PROFITS.

The last lines provides us info. about the estimated federal EXPENSES and PROFITS earned by the industrialist.This indicates a disconnect or flaw.

B states that the whole war was NOT funded by the industrialist and that is the expenses were borne by those OTHER than the industrialist .

What would happen if the govt. asked the industrialist to fund the war - for example by placing a moratorium on industrial funding or by raising taxes that would increase cost of production, or by using new tax laws for industrialist ...????

B loosely says that the industrialist were kept out of the funding and hence, they made large profits. The rich industrialist were kept out of the loop and the common man was taxed to fund the war.

I hope my analysis makes sense.


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It is easy if one understands the specifics in Q - "Yet this cannot be the motive since" is all what you need.

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Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2016, 08:16
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Please help

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Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2016, 23:39
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This is an excellent question.
It is a combo of find the assumption and then find the flaw question.
The correct solution to this question will be very satisfying to the test taker.

Lets quickly break the question stem in premise and conclusion

Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars in intervention. (Federal means government.)
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

This looks like a very cogent and strong argument. Why it is so strong:- because the argument is assuming that all 8 billion was invested by industrialist
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion was invested by the industrialist.

See it yourself by rereading the argument again this time with the ASSUMPTION
Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars as expenses for the intervention.
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion expense was borne by the industrialist.
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

Now we have found the ASSUMPTION.
And now we will find the flaw.
What if Industrialist gave only 1 billion and got 4 billion in return. Then it will mean Industrialist's motive was to make profit.

What option proves that Industrialist invested less and made more money and that was Industrialist main Aim. --- to make profit.
(B) The largest proportion of federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

CORRECT ANSWER IS B


Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.
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Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2016, 19:35
LogicGuru1 wrote:
This is an excellent question.
It is a combo of find the assumption and then find the flaw question.
The correct solution to this question will be very satisfying to the test taker.

Lets quickly break the question stem in premise and conclusion

Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars in intervention. (Federal means government.)
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

This looks like a very cogent and strong argument. Why it is so strong:- because the argument is assuming that all 8 billion was invested by industrialist
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion was invested by the industrialist.

See it yourself by rereading the argument again this time with the ASSUMPTION
Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars as expenses for the intervention.
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion expense was borne by the industrialist.
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

Now we have found the ASSUMPTION.
And now we will find the flaw.
What if Industrialist gave only 1 billion and got 4 billion in return. Then it will mean Industrialist's motive was to make profit.

What option proves that Industrialist invested less and made more money and that was Industrialist main Aim. --- to make profit.
(B) The largest proportion of federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

CORRECT ANSWER IS B


Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.


Hi
something that hangs me down on this question is the relation $8 Billion expenses or cost of the war and than says Profit for the industrials, and as we know Profit = Revenue - Cost, so I assume Revenue is 8 billion - Cost for the industrials to produce product or service $4 billion = Profit from the stem $ Billion. So do we need to look for the weekener here in this part. but in that case the assumption to hold the conclusion ts that teh profit shoud have been higher than $ 4 billiion or more than 50% of the revenue. but because these industrials made only 4 $ billion they are not supporting the war, and that would be that these industrials did not make substantial profits so they are not motivated to support the war. So if my reasoning is correct than we need to disprove that in fact there was a motive and that 50 % or less profit margins is significant or something along those line? or? show that even small not significant profit would be a good motive to support the war? and than B comes saying that most of the invollved businiess enteties who take part of the war business do not inccure high profit but they are still in war business. which means that thay are in teh game even for small profit would support the war. is that what B trying to convey?

any thought, what you think?

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Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2016, 14:25
kzivrev wrote:
LogicGuru1 wrote:
This is an excellent question.
It is a combo of find the assumption and then find the flaw question.
The correct solution to this question will be very satisfying to the test taker.

Lets quickly break the question stem in premise and conclusion

Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars in intervention. (Federal means government.)
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

This looks like a very cogent and strong argument. Why it is so strong:- because the argument is assuming that all 8 billion was invested by industrialist
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion was invested by the industrialist.

See it yourself by rereading the argument again this time with the ASSUMPTION
Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars as expenses for the intervention.
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion expense was borne by the industrialist.
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

Now we have found the ASSUMPTION.
And now we will find the flaw.
What if Industrialist gave only 1 billion and got 4 billion in return. Then it will mean Industrialist's motive was to make profit.

What option proves that Industrialist invested less and made more money and that was Industrialist main Aim. --- to make profit.
(B) The largest proportion of federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

CORRECT ANSWER IS B


Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.


Hi
something that hangs me down on this question is the relation $8 Billion expenses or cost of the war and than says Profit for the industrials, and as we know Profit = Revenue - Cost, so I assume Revenue is 8 billion - Cost for the industrials to produce product or service $4 billion = Profit from the stem $ Billion. So do we need to look for the weekener here in this part. but in that case the assumption to hold the conclusion ts that teh profit shoud have been higher than $ 4 billiion or more than 50% of the revenue. but because these industrials made only 4 $ billion they are not supporting the war, and that would be that these industrials did not make substantial profits so they are not motivated to support the war. So if my reasoning is correct than we need to disprove that in fact there was a motive and that 50 % or less profit margins is significant or something along those line? or? show that even small not significant profit would be a good motive to support the war? and than B comes saying that most of the invollved businiess enteties who take part of the war business do not inccure high profit but they are still in war business. which means that thay are in teh game even for small profit would support the war. is that what B trying to convey?

any thought, what you think?


The author claims that Distopian federal spends $8 billions for the war ( cash out flow = $8 billion) and the profit of the industrialists is $4 billions ( cash inflow = $ 4 billion). The net cash outflow for Distopians is therefore $4 billion. Hence the war is not beneficial for Distopia. ( The revenue and cost for the industrialists do not matter because their net profit is given - you may take this way: net loss for the federal = $ 8 billion, net profit for the industrialists = $ 4 billion, hence overall net loss = $ 4 billion).

The above point of the author is challenged by stating that industrialists do not lose much because of federal expense and they have no incentive to save the federal expense- the profit they make from the war outweighs the losses they make by federal expenses. Thus it may be valid that they promote the civil war for their benefit.

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Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2016, 19:35
answer B means that the Industrialists the not the one who spend the federal expenses so their profits are pure income
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New post 03 Dec 2016, 11:35
The OA is correct and explanations provided in the thread appear sufficient. If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button – users are requested not to click the button without posting their queries.

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 02:00
Option d also states a possible reason. why is option D wrong can anyone explain?

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Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 07:12
Although the answer is B
But can anyone explain in detail option C , according to me c is a valid contender .
If the industries are not protected they will not be able to give the profits which they would give if protected during war .
Any thoughts on this please ?
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New post 22 Aug 2017, 12:58
Can you please help me understand why is option C incorrect?
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Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of [#permalink]

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Khuranasup wrote:
Can you please help me understand why is option C incorrect?

The author's conclusion is that the industrialists' motive for promoting Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war could NOT have been to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Why not?

  • "Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars," and the Distopians foresaw this. In other words, the Distopians predicted that federal expenses for the intervention would be eight billion dollars, so these costs were not a surprise and would have been considered when deciding whether to promote Distopian intervention.
  • "During the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars." If the Distopians predicted profits of only four billion and federal expenses of eight billion, why would they have promoted intervention? The author implies that those additional expenses (for intervention) would outweigh the wartime profits. Thus, the author concludes that the industrialists, who predicted these expenses and profits, must not have been motivated by a desire to insure profits during the war.

Notice that the author's logic depends on the assumption that the industrialists would have to pay for some or all of those additional expenses for the intervention. So which of the following exposes a serious flaw in the author's conclusion?

Quote:
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.

The author's argument is only concerned with profits at the facilities in Arcadia. Choice (A) is irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

The author reasons that since the federal expenses outweigh the profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia, the industrialists must not have been motivated by a desire to insure profits during the war. But if the largest proportion of those federal expenses is paid by people/groups other than the industrialists, that means that the cost of those expenses to the industrialists must have been less than half of eight billion. Furthermore, if the industrialists only had to pay for a small proportion of the federal expenses, then they may have enjoyed substantial profits during the war. This possibility significantly weakens the author's argument, so hang on to choice (B).

Quote:
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.

The author's argument revolves around whether the industrialists were motivated by a desire to insure profits DURING THE WAR. The evidence in support of the author's conclusion also involves wartime figures. Choice (C), which discusses postwar profits, has not impact on the author's argument and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.

Again, the author's argument is only concerned with wartime profits. Choice (D) has no impact on the author's conclusion or the supporting evidence. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.

An alternative motive for promoting intervention could actually strengthen the author's argument. However, choice (E) does not explain why the industrialists promoted intervention (if anything, it could be a reason why the industrialists did NOT want to promote intervention). This statement does not pertain to the author's conclusion or supporting evidence, so (E) can be eliminated.

(B) is the best choice.
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