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# Inhabitants of the country Orctania suffer from a much lower incidence

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Math Expert
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Inhabitants of the country Orctania suffer from a much lower incidence  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 02:36
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Inhabitants of the country Orctania suffer from a much lower incidence of cancer than the inhabitants of other countries, for reasons that are generally theorized to be environmental and behavioral--the pollution-free air, stress-free and drug-free living, healthy dietary practices, and active lifestyle. Nevertheless, people from other countries who take up residence in Orctania and attempt to follow the practices of the inhabitants still have a radically higher incidence of cancer than do native Octanians.

Which of the following does NOT help to explain the higher incidence rate of cancer in non-native Orctanians?

A. The causes of some forms of cancer that are prevalent in Orctania are genetic, not environmental or behavioral.

B. People from other countries who take up residence in Orctania may fail to succeed in following the practices of native Orctanians in important respects.

C. The non-native Orctanians who take up residence in Orctania tend to be motivated to do so by a desire to improve their health.

D. It has not been established which one of several possible factors, or combination of these factors, is truly responsible for the low incidence of cancer in native Orctanians.

E. Most non-natives move to Orctania too late in life to reap the environmental and behavioral health benefits of living there.

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Re: Inhabitants of the country Orctania suffer from a much lower incidence  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 23:32
Bunuel wrote:
Inhabitants of the country Orctania suffer from a much lower incidence of cancer than the inhabitants of other countries, for reasons that are generally theorized to be environmental and behavioral--the pollution-free air, stress-free and drug-free living, healthy dietary practices, and active lifestyle. Nevertheless, people from other countries who take up residence in Orctania and attempt to follow the practices of the inhabitants still have a radically higher incidence of cancer than do native Octanians.

Which of the following does NOT help to explain the higher incidence rate of cancer in non-native Orctanians?

A. The causes of some forms of cancer that are prevalent in Orctania are genetic, not environmental or behavioral.

B. People from other countries who take up residence in Orctania may fail to succeed in following the practices of native Orctanians in important respects.

C. The non-native Orctanians who take up residence in Orctania tend to be motivated to do so by a desire to improve their health.

D. It has not been established which one of several possible factors, or combination of these factors, is truly responsible for the low incidence of cancer in native Orctanians.

E. Most non-natives move to Orctania too late in life to reap the environmental and behavioral health benefits of living there.

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

Reading the question: we can see that this question looks like a lot of work. First, it has given us a difficult-seeming puzzle: this country is has a low cancer rate, for non-genetic reasons, but people who move there have a higher cancer rate. Secondly, we have a "NOT" question. Questions with "NOT," like those with "EXCEPT," tend to be labor intensive, since it's relatively slow to go through four good explanations and one bad one. The key technique here is to use a very basic filter. In "NOT" and "EXCEPT" questions--and all questions that are involved--you're often basic served by a basic filter.

Applying the filter: carefully asking this simple question, we can judge that (D) is the least explanatory of the cancer rate and is therefore the answer. In (D), even if the exact "factor" hasn't been determined, it doesn't matter, because the people who move to Orctania "attempt to follow the practices of the inhabitants." So, we don't know whether it's being pollution-free and stress-free and drug free and so on, but the people are doing all of them, so (D) doesn't help to clear up the mystery.Everything else is a good explanation. Choices (B) and (E) both point out that moving to the country does not automatically equate with enjoying the benefits of the environment or with adopting the behaviors. (C) points out that the population moving to the country might be doing so because they are unusually cancer-prone to begin with, which would explain why they would have a higher rate of cancer even after reaping benefits. Choice (A) points out the possibility that some forms of cancer aren't helped by living in Orctania--those kinds depend only on genes, and, critically, it's possible that the people who move to the country have genes more prone to those forms of cancer, somewhat like the case of (C).

Logical proof: finally, we can use a test of (D) that is similar to the negation test: say that it has been established which factor was responsible. That's not automatically an explanation, because, for all we know, the people who move to Orctania are perfectly recreating/copying that factor. Since the situation is unchanged given (D) or its negation, (D) is unimportant to the situation.

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Re: Inhabitants of the country Orctania suffer from a much lower incidence  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2019, 23:51
Quote:
Inhabitants of the country Orctania suffer from a much lower incidence of cancer than the inhabitants of other countries, for reasons that are generally theorized to be environmental and behavioral--the pollution-free air, stress-free and drug-free living, healthy dietary practices, and active lifestyle. Nevertheless, people from other countries who take up residence in Orctania and attempt to follow the practices of the inhabitants still have a radically higher incidence of cancer than do native Octanians.

Which of the following does NOT help to explain the higher incidence rate of cancer in non-native Orctanians?

A. The causes of some forms of cancer that are prevalent in Orctania are genetic, not environmental or behavioral.

B. People from other countries who take up residence in Orctania may fail to succeed in following the practices of native Orctanians in important respects.

C. The non-native Orctanians who take up residence in Orctania tend to be motivated to do so by a desire to improve their health.

D. It has not been established which one of several possible factors, or combination of these factors, is truly responsible for the low incidence of cancer in native Orctanians.

E. Most non-natives move to Orctania too late in life to reap the environmental and behavioral health benefits of living there.

The correct answer here is D. This question is a bit tricky because it has a very plausible trap answer in C. But what's important to remember is that on an "except" question, we're simply looking for the statement that does not resolve the paradox.
The paradox here is that people who move to Orctania continue to have higher cancer rates. We want answer which suggests that they should have similar rates, since all the other 4 will explain why the cancer rate is higher.

A - If genetics is a factor that would certainly help explain things. OUT

B - If the expats who arrive do not follow the same practices properly, then it may explain why they don't reap the rewards. OUT

C - This is a tempting answer. If people who move to Orctania do it to live healthier, it should not necessarily suggest that the rate will be the same. But think about what this does suggest. It basically says that people think that moving to Orctania will make their health better. But moving alone will not do this, so we can say that this resolves the paradox, as it might help explain why the cancer rate is still higher. OUT

D - The toss up that is not established is whether it is one of the mentioned factors, or a combination of several of them. But either way, it means that moving to Orctania should result in lower cancer rates. Since it doesn't, this option fails to resolve the paradox. CORRECT

E - If they move too late, it would help explain why the cancer rates are higher. OUT
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Re: Inhabitants of the country Orctania suffer from a much lower incidence   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2019, 23:51
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