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Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error,

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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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Very very good and easy question.
THE ANSWER IS E AND E ONLY.

Explaination :- Questions asks us what is the "pre-supposition. It means what ASSUMPTIONS were made while reaching the conclusion"

There are 2 techniques to find the Assumption
1) ASSUMPTION NEGATION :- First find the premise and conclusion of the argument. Then negate answer choices only by one. The answer choice which after negation makes the conclusion weak is the correct answer. THIS IS THE TECHNIQUE MOST PEOPLE USE TO FIND ASSUMPTION
2) ASSUMPTION ADDITION :- Assumption is a premise that is not written or expressed in the argument. But assumption is an important premise to reach the conclusion. In this type of questions a strong unstated assumption is always present in the option choices that when inserted in the argument make it complete. So in this technique you add one of the OPTION from answer choices as a Premise just before the Conclusion. The answer choice that makes the argument complete is correct.

NOW LETS GET TO THE BRASS TACKS (BRASS TACKS is an idiom that means "focus on the issue in hand" :-))
We will use ASSUMPTION ADDITION technique.
First we will have to quickly identify and isolate the PREMISES and CONCLUSION of the argument.
Premise 1) Don't blame pilot for accidents.
Premise 2) Investigate why error was made by analysing these areas :- airplane design (X), management (Y), and PILOT TRAINING PROGRAM (Z)
Premise 3) ----HERE WE WILL ADD THE ANSWER OPTIONS A,B,C,D,E --ONE BY ONE-----
Conclusion) Only after making changes in design, management and pilot's training we can ensure similar type of accidents does occur in future

SO add option E in place of PREMISE 3 and see how the argument becomes fool proof, cogent and strong.

Premise 1) Don't blame pilot for accidents.
Premise 2) Investigate why error was made by analysing these areas :- airplane design (X), management (Y), and PILOT TRAINING PROGRAM.
Premise 3) (E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
Conclusion) Only after making changes in X, Y and Pilot's training(Z) we can ensure that similar kind of accident does occur in future


Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(Reverse answer. Pilot training is the most important factor)
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(Irrelevant to the issue)
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(Out of scope)
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(There is a possibility that investigators have already contributed to the prevention of accidents by filtering out the possible reasons for the accident. Investigators may have given a detailed report to Airline management explaining the cause of the accidents but the managment decided not to implement the recommendation from the investigators because it will require large amount of investment and decline airline's profit margin. So we don't know whether investigators are or not contributing. No information in the argument to validate this option)
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
(yup correct answer :- Don't blame pilots for accidents. you don't gave them proper training. An inexperienced pilot will keep causing accidents unless you train him properly.)
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 13 Jun 2016, 22:59.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 30 Aug 2016, 09:34, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2016, 21:32
Guys the answer should be D, because the argument implies that investigators have to find not just a cause of the event, but also a solution in order to make flights safer. The argument doesn't say anything about possibility to retrain pilots, maybe it is impossible, and even retrained they will do the same errors, we don't know! Maybe the changes will have effect only on new generation pilots... But finding the cause the investigators will anyway contribute to changes, and make these flights safer.

So, I'm pretty sure the answer is D!
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2017, 06:06
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.


How does E fit in the scope? Shouldn't A be the assumption?
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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ilaukikt wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.


How does E fit in the scope? Shouldn't A be the assumption?


The passage already states that the accidents are because of pilot errors ( "Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made" - this part implies that there was definitely a pilot error). Hence A is incorrect.

The argument is as follows:

Conclusion: ONLY analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs will ensure that an error is not repeated.

The word "Only" plays a vital role here, because it eliminates the possibility that there could be other ways by which repetition of errors can be avoided.

Thus the assumption is that there is no other way to avoid repetition of errors. If a pilot who makes an error learns from his mistake and does not make the error again, then this would be one other way of avoiding a repetition of error. Thus E must be assumption.

Please let me know if you still have doubt.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2017, 14:53
oblivion2232 wrote:
nocilis wrote:
OA is D.
Any reason why E is wrong?



Hi

(E) States that - " Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained"

CASE I : Suppose 100 new pilots make a the same mistake once each
CASE II : Suppose 1 new pilots make the same mistake 100 times.

For both the cases, Training for the Pilots is essential. So that is why E does not make sense and can be eliminated also by the Negation Technique .


Please correct me if am wrong.



I chose "E". The thing with "D" is that it is not a presupposition nor an assumption to be made for the argument to hold, on the contrary, this is explicitly stated in the argument. And so if it is a simple restatement of part of the argument it cannot be a presupposition at the same time. In the case of choice "E", it states that "Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained". The conclusion of the argument is that only after a pilot error has been analyzed and accordingly changes are made, then it can be ensured that the same type of error does not recur. It is therefore being assumed that the error would be repeated unless these actions (investigation and analysis of airline management, airplane design, training programs, etc.) are performed. Hence I chose "E"

Hope this helps.

Best,

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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 04:54
I guess OA should be D... I came across a similar question in OG and the ans of that question was similar to choice D....
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 05:08
sayantanc2k wrote:
ilaukikt wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.


How does E fit in the scope? Shouldn't A be the assumption?


The passage already states that the accidents are because of pilot errors ( "Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made" - this part implies that there was definitely a pilot error). Hence A is incorrect.

The argument is as follows:

Conclusion: ONLY analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs will ensure that an error is not repeated.

The word "Only" plays a vital role here, because it eliminates the possibility that there could be other ways by which repetition of errors can be avoided.

Thus the assumption is that there is no other way to avoid repetition of errors. If a pilot who makes an error learns from his mistake and does not make the error again, then this would be one other way of avoiding a repetition of error. Thus E must be assumption.

Please let me know if you still have doubt.


Hi Sayantan,

I have a doubt here... Here the question stem says that to avoid future error the investigators should investigate the error made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. So if the result of an investigation of any of the three below aspects can not contribute to future prevention of accidents then how come the conclusion become true?

1. airplane design - suppose investigators say that airplane design is an important aspect of preventing future accidents, but assume in reality it is not an aspect.
2. airline management - suppose investigators say that airline management is an important aspect of preventing future accidents, but assume in reality it is not an aspect.
3. pilot-training programs - suppose investigators say that pilot-training program is an important aspect of preventing future accidents, but assume in reality it is not an aspect.

So D passes the negation test and IMO the best ans. What do you think in this case? Am I missing something?
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2017, 01:37
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?

(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2017, 12:27
arunavamunshi1988 wrote:
I guess OA should be D... I came across a similar question in OG and the ans of that question was similar to choice D....


In this forum also there is a OG 16 question on similar pattern( related to insurance and car driver) and the OA is E.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2017, 01:17
I went for E but many of people have said that D is the correct option. Can somebody sort out this confusion? If it's an Official question it would certainly have an OA!
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2017, 01:24
An Expert's opinion will be greatly appreciated.


(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.


Does it mean, SOME pilots who make errors in flying WILL/MIGHT repeat their errors EVEN they are retrained?

If so, then IMHO, changes CAN NOT be made to ENSURE that the same type of error DOES NOT recur and cause another accident, EVEN we analyze and retrain
Basically, the inclusion of MOST in E is confusing me.

Regards

nocilis wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.

Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?

(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
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Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2018, 10:46
nocilis wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.

Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?

(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.



I chose D because it sounds the most convincing as an assumption. It is also in line with the conclusion.

I feel E is wrong because, the accident could be because of management also. Assuming that pilots will make the same mistakes unless retrained doesn't sound logical and it doesn't fall in line with the conclusion.

Maybe I'm wrong. lemme know in such a case...
Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error,   [#permalink] 04 Apr 2018, 10:46

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