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# Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error,

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28 Jan 2005, 15:00
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65% (hard)

Question Stats:

53% (01:36) correct 47% (01:12) wrong based on 1557 sessions

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Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.

Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?

(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
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28 Jan 2005, 15:47
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I think it is A.

As he is assuming that pilot error is not the reason.
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28 Jan 2005, 16:18
I choose (D).

The auther says the investigaters should do this and that so that no more similar accidents happen again. So he is assuming that the investigater has the responsibility to make sure similar accidents do not happen again.
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29 Jan 2005, 17:19
The arguement states that pilot error is only one factor in mishaps. In fact there is an implication here that pilot error is used as a scapegoat not to investigate further. Therefore there is no point in retraining pilots if the root cause is something else.
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15 Aug 2012, 00:05
IMO A shouldn't be the answer as it says most of the accident is not due to driver...In the passage it is clearly mentioned that some accident can be reduced.
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21 Jul 2014, 07:43
@ dhirajdas53
Where is the "some" mentioned? However, the correct answer is D.
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30 Aug 2014, 01:37
maggie27 wrote:
@ dhirajdas53
Where is the "some" mentioned? However, the correct answer is D.

D is stated, therefore not an assumption.
For E, your supposing that pilot error needs to be addressed on a high level (regulation of how licence issue rules). What if this error was a one time error, and will not happen again? There is no need for such much investigation on part of the insurance company.

I'm not really happy with the questions, and forcing myself to accept E. This is very similar to a MGMAT questions. Not sure what the source of this question is, though.
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29 Nov 2014, 19:12
For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.

bold letters indicate that investigations leads to prevention of same type of errors ,,

So " E "must be the assumption as it has "Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained"
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15 Apr 2015, 18:13
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nocilis wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.

IMO correct OA is A....................presupposition or we can say assumption of the argument that the author used is to insist the investigators consider the fact that airline accident may not only involve error(s) that due to pilot only.In fact it may involve error(s) associated with other parameters like airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs.Then only a better change can be made for future accidents preventions.
If the author did not assume that pilot errors (by any way) are not always responsible for airline accident, he/she could not justify his argument to the investigators.
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17 Apr 2015, 03:42
Premises:-

Accidents were due to the Pilot by somehow,whether he was not able to analyse or messed up with the controls.

The author says that instead of blaming the pilot, Management or the investigators should analyse errors analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs because he assumes once these problems are eradicated pilots won't make any mistakes or errors while filght. [Root cause eradication]
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01 May 2015, 07:44
nocilis wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.

good question.initially chosen A but now understood why E is correct.
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21 May 2015, 09:01
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nocilis wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.

I marked "D" but IMO answer choice E is a correct assumption. Premise "Instead of blaming the pilot, investigators should analyse design, airline management and training programs". Option D is stated in the argument so it cant be the assumption..In choice E it states " if we only blame the pilots for the accidents always, then the real cause of the accidents we will never know..AND as the reason is unknown, there is always a possibility that the same error will occur again..We cant trained the pilots for the unknown errors...we must know the right reason only then it can be rectified. Only blaming the pilot will not solve the issue as they are always prone to make the same error.
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23 May 2015, 22:14
The conclusion says " Until we don't focus on the three things and don't stop blaming the pilot error" we would not be able to ensure that same type of errors do not happen.

Point to be noted: that same type of errors do not happen. It means the argument assumes that accidents are happening due to same types of errors being committed again and again and If we want to prevent this, then the three mentioned points shall be investigated rather than pointing out that its a pilot error.

Assumption: The argument assumes that by incorporating these three points the repetitive errors/causes of accidents will not be there. And that repetitive cause is pilot error. So it assumes that if the pilot is retrained ( as pilot training program is one of the three points the argument wants the investigators to focus on), he/she will not commit mistakes.

Only E matches this criteria, hence the answer.

P.S: It took me more than 2 minutes to answer this, as I misunderstood the conclusion.
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15 Jul 2015, 14:04
E is a strong defensive assumption in this case. The main point of the argument is that pilots should not bare the blame. Therefore, the assumption needs to protect this claim in some form.

E and A are similar, but the former is the stronger of the two.

Let's negate choice E: Suppose that pilots will not necessarily make repeat errors. In this case, why would the argument protect the pilots and not incriminate them? It does not make any sense.
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16 Jul 2015, 03:15
nocilis wrote:
OA is D.
Any reason why E is wrong?

Hi

(E) States that - " Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained"

CASE I : Suppose 100 new pilots make a the same mistake once each
CASE II : Suppose 1 new pilots make the same mistake 100 times.

For both the cases, Training for the Pilots is essential. So that is why E does not make sense and can be eliminated also by the Negation Technique .

Please correct me if am wrong.
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21 May 2016, 13:46
This is a bad question. The diction for "most pilots" does not guarantee the conclusion that the same "type of error" does not occur again either. And as someone else already mentioned, the OA E puts the blame on pilots when in the introductory of the stem it clearly states "instead of blaming... on pilot error". Unless pilot error does NOT equal pilot. On top of all this, E is an assumption that supports only 1 of 3 premises mentioned. If MOST pilots didn't learn, we still have some pilots that do learn, on top airline management and analyzing airplane design. In no way does negating E make the argument fall.

Furthermore, answer choice A can be interpreted as repeating the premise, but I would argue the tonality doesn't mention it as a factual point.
"Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents." is much different than "instead of blaming a pillot..."

Poor question overall.
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Updated on: 30 Aug 2016, 09:34
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Very very good and easy question.
THE ANSWER IS E AND E ONLY.

Explaination :- Questions asks us what is the "pre-supposition. It means what ASSUMPTIONS were made while reaching the conclusion"

There are 2 techniques to find the Assumption
1) ASSUMPTION NEGATION :- First find the premise and conclusion of the argument. Then negate answer choices only by one. The answer choice which after negation makes the conclusion weak is the correct answer. THIS IS THE TECHNIQUE MOST PEOPLE USE TO FIND ASSUMPTION
2) ASSUMPTION ADDITION :- Assumption is a premise that is not written or expressed in the argument. But assumption is an important premise to reach the conclusion. In this type of questions a strong unstated assumption is always present in the option choices that when inserted in the argument make it complete. So in this technique you add one of the OPTION from answer choices as a Premise just before the Conclusion. The answer choice that makes the argument complete is correct.

NOW LETS GET TO THE BRASS TACKS (BRASS TACKS is an idiom that means "focus on the issue in hand" )
We will use ASSUMPTION ADDITION technique.
First we will have to quickly identify and isolate the PREMISES and CONCLUSION of the argument.
Premise 1) Don't blame pilot for accidents.
Premise 2) Investigate why error was made by analysing these areas :- airplane design (X), management (Y), and PILOT TRAINING PROGRAM (Z)
Premise 3) ----HERE WE WILL ADD THE ANSWER OPTIONS A,B,C,D,E --ONE BY ONE-----
Conclusion) Only after making changes in design, management and pilot's training we can ensure similar type of accidents does occur in future

SO add option E in place of PREMISE 3 and see how the argument becomes fool proof, cogent and strong.

Premise 1) Don't blame pilot for accidents.
Premise 2) Investigate why error was made by analysing these areas :- airplane design (X), management (Y), and PILOT TRAINING PROGRAM.
Premise 3) (E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
Conclusion) Only after making changes in X, Y and Pilot's training(Z) we can ensure that similar kind of accident does occur in future

Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(Reverse answer. Pilot training is the most important factor)
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(Irrelevant to the issue)
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(Out of scope)
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(There is a possibility that investigators have already contributed to the prevention of accidents by filtering out the possible reasons for the accident. Investigators may have given a detailed report to Airline management explaining the cause of the accidents but the managment decided not to implement the recommendation from the investigators because it will require large amount of investment and decline airline's profit margin. So we don't know whether investigators are or not contributing. No information in the argument to validate this option)
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.
(yup correct answer :- Don't blame pilots for accidents. you don't gave them proper training. An inexperienced pilot will keep causing accidents unless you train him properly.)
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 13 Jun 2016, 22:59.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 30 Aug 2016, 09:34, edited 3 times in total.
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16 Jun 2016, 21:32
Guys the answer should be D, because the argument implies that investigators have to find not just a cause of the event, but also a solution in order to make flights safer. The argument doesn't say anything about possibility to retrain pilots, maybe it is impossible, and even retrained they will do the same errors, we don't know! Maybe the changes will have effect only on new generation pilots... But finding the cause the investigators will anyway contribute to changes, and make these flights safer.

So, I'm pretty sure the answer is D!
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09 Jan 2017, 06:06
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.

How does E fit in the scope? Shouldn't A be the assumption?
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09 Jan 2017, 06:35
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ilaukikt wrote:
Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made by analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs. For only then can changes be made to ensure that the same type of error does not recur and cause another accident.
Which of the following is a presupposition of the argument above?
(A) Pilot error is not a contributing factor in most airline accidents.
(B) Airline companies themselves should be the agents who investigate airline accidents.
(C) Stricter government regulation of airline companies will make air travel significantly safer.
(D) Investigators of airline accidents should contribute to the prevention of future accidents.
(E) Most pilots who make errors in flying will repeat their errors unless they are retrained.

How does E fit in the scope? Shouldn't A be the assumption?

The passage already states that the accidents are because of pilot errors ( "Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error, investigators should find out why the error was made" - this part implies that there was definitely a pilot error). Hence A is incorrect.

The argument is as follows:

Conclusion: ONLY analyzing airplane design, airline management, and pilot-training programs will ensure that an error is not repeated.

The word "Only" plays a vital role here, because it eliminates the possibility that there could be other ways by which repetition of errors can be avoided.

Thus the assumption is that there is no other way to avoid repetition of errors. If a pilot who makes an error learns from his mistake and does not make the error again, then this would be one other way of avoiding a repetition of error. Thus E must be assumption.

Please let me know if you still have doubt.
Re: Instead of blaming an airline accident on pilot error,   [#permalink] 09 Jan 2017, 06:35

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