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# Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age

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Director
Joined: 03 Feb 2013
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Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Aug 2019, 05:03
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Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age which were naturally preserved in sphagnum bogs, have revealed much about their diet and probable causes of death. The special conditions in the bogs kept the skin and internal organs of the bodies intact, allowing modern scientists to collect data from the remains of food in their stomachs and draw conclusions from the condition of their bodies immediately before death.

The Grauballe man, named after the area in which he was found, had an unusually large amount of food in his stomach, food which must have been consumed immediately before death. The bad state of his teeth suggested that the man had not lived exclusively on the type of vegetable diet that this meal represented. It consisted of a gruel even more mixed in its seed content than the gruel eaten by the Tollund man, another well-known find from the bogs. Many small bone fragments and some mammalian hairs were also found in the stomach, indicating that the soup or gruel had also contained meat.

No trace was found of summer or autumn fruits in the last meals of either the Grauballe or Tollund man and there are thus grounds for thinking that both men met their deaths in winter or early spring, the season in which human sacrifices were made in order to hasten the coming of spring. This assertion is supported by the fact that the bog people obviously enjoyed good nutrition and had well groomed bodies, clearly marking them as part of the upper class.

The manner of death of many of the bodies seems to support the idea that the bog people were human sacrifices, although it is impossible to make any conclusive statements. Some bodies were found with the ropes used to strangle them still hanging around their necks, while other bodies had deep cuts and head wounds, possibly signs of torture. However, these manners of death do not point exclusively to human sacrifice, as similar methods were probably used for executing criminals.

1. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the assertion that the bog people were human sacrifices?

A) Human sacrifices in the Iron Age were habitually given lavish food and well cared for in the months before their executions.
B) In the Iron Age, it was considered unmanly for a wealthy man to groom his body.
C) According to Iron Age belief systems, the deliberate killing of a notable member of society incurred the wrath of the gods.
D) Iron Age tribes sacrificed people from other tribes rather than from their own
E) Iron Age people believed that gods were capricious beings to be assuaged by lavish gifts.

2.If the bog people were indeed human sacrifices, what may be inferred from the state of the Grauballe man's teeth?
A) Human sacrifices were abused before they were killed.
B) Iron Age people had an abundance of meat.
C) Until their last meal, human sacrifices were fed only meat.
D) Human sacrifices were fed badly by their executioners.
E) Human sacrifices were given a special meal immediately before they were killed

3.The purpose of the first paragraph is to
B) present two aspects of bog people to be investigated
C) reveal information about Iron Age people
D) make a scientific claim to be proved
E) elaborate on modern scientific techniques

4.The author of the passage would be most likely to describe the knowledge gained from studying the bog people as
A) difficult to corroborate
B) interesting but of limited scientific value
C) confirming earlier finds
D) useful but incomplete
E) opening avenues for future research

5.The author mentions that "there are thus grounds for thinking that both men met their deaths in winter or early spring" in order to do which of the following?

A. make clear that the author's point of view is a theory and not fact
B. indicate that scientists can only guess when the bog people died
C. compare the Tollund man and the Grauballe man
D. cast doubt on the assertion made later in the paragraph
E. offer an explanation for the unusual contents in the Grauballe man's and Tollund man's stomachs

6.One function of the third paragraph is to

A. present a theory which is questioned by information in the fourth paragraph
B. draw a conclusion based on information in the second paragraph
C. promote a hypothesis which the fourth paragraph proves
D. analyze the information presented in the second paragraph
E. introduce a theory which is discussed further in the fourth paragraph

Originally posted by kinjiGC on 03 Nov 2014, 07:04.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 30 Aug 2019, 05:03, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (350).
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Re: Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2014, 18:16
2
3
kinjiGC wrote:
can anybody explain the Question # 2?

How can OA be E) as per the passage:
The bad state of his teeth suggested that the man had not lived exclusively on the type of vegetable diet that this meal represented.
This meal suggest the special meal. So there should be some other reason.

Quote:
2.If the bog people were indeed human sacrifices, what may be inferred from the state of the Grauballe man's teeth?
A) Human sacrifices were abused before they were killed.
B) Iron Age people had an abundance of meat.
C) Until their last meal, human sacrifices were fed only meat.
D) Human sacrifices were fed badly by their executioners.
E) Human sacrifices were given a special meal immediately before they were killed

Typically, when a question asks you to "infer" something, it still requires you to be very conservative about how much you infer. A good way to treat these types of questions is "Do any of the answer choices say the same thing as the passage, but worded differently?"

When you approach the question that way, it becomes easier to settle on answer choice E based on this part of the passage:

Quote:
The bad state of his teeth suggested that the man had not lived exclusively on the type of vegetable diet that this meal represented.

In other words, this man did not typically eat the food he had in his last meal. The meal was "special" in the sense that it was different from the norm.

Here's how the other answer choices get eliminated:
A) The passage says nothing of teeth indicating abuse. That is later in the passage and concluded from the deep cuts.
B) Nothing in the passage indicates there was an abundance of meat
C) Again, the passage never makes this claim. The closest thing to this claim is "The bad state of his teeth suggested that the man had not lived exclusively on the type of vegetable diet that this meal represented." but the man could have lived on other types of vegetables also.
D) There is no reference to the quality of the last meal. The only thing the passage claims is that they bog people had nutritious diets.
##### General Discussion
Director
Joined: 03 Feb 2013
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Re: Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age  [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2014, 07:18
can anybody explain the Question # 2?

How can OA be E) as per the passage:
The bad state of his teeth suggested that the man had not lived exclusively on the type of vegetable diet that this meal represented.
This meal suggest the special meal. So there should be some other reason.
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Re: Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2014, 15:41
kinjiGC wrote:
can anybody explain the Question # 2?

How can OA be E) as per the passage:
The bad state of his teeth suggested that the man had not lived exclusively on the type of vegetable diet that this meal represented.
This meal suggest the special meal. So there should be some other reason.

i chose E because first paragraph says ''llowing modern scientists to collect data from the remains of food in their stomachs and draw conclusions from the condition of their bodies immediately before death.''. In this context bad state of his teeth indicates that he must have had some special meal before his death.
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Re: Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age  [#permalink]

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10 Nov 2014, 12:09
2
"had an unusually large amount of food in his stomach, food which must have been consumed immediately before death. The bad state of his teeth suggested that the man had not lived exclusively on the type of vegetable diet that this meal represented."

I think these lines suggest that just before the sacrifice the bog people were given a different meal than they would usually have.

Note: Here the term special may refer to "unique" or "different". Consider the food given just before the sacrifice as a meal prepared specially for the purpose of feeding a person to be sacrificed.
In this sense , the term "special" is apt here.

"Special" need not mean a "good quality food".

Also as others choices are plain wrong and cant be inferred
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Re: Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age  [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2015, 19:36
kinjiGC wrote:
can anybody explain the Question # 2?

How can OA be E) as per the passage:
The bad state of his teeth suggested that the man had not lived exclusively on the type of vegetable diet that this meal represented.
This meal suggest the special meal. So there should be some other reason.

Option "C" say ONLY meat but it is not the case.

I too was confused b/w C & E but because of only i chose E.

For better understanding try Question 2 of this passage > despite the tremendous technological advances

The same situation is dr. One choice is too extreme as in this question
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Re: Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age  [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2019, 01:09
why not "A" for question 6
the theory presented in third paragraph is questioned in fourth
Re: Investigations of the bog people, bodies from the Iron Age   [#permalink] 12 Nov 2019, 01:09
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