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# Investigators concluded that human failure was not

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Senior Manager
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Investigators concluded that human failure was not [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2004, 09:22
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Investigators concluded that human failure was not responsible for the fatal airplane crash last August, and since that time new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August.

Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the argument in the passage?

(A) Airplane travel is still relatively safe, despite the increase in reported mechanical problems.

(B) Mechanical problems in airplanes have increased dramatically since last August.

(C) Mechanical problems in airplanes have not increased by 50 percent since last August.

(D) Airlines are less reluctant to report mechanical problems than they previously were.

(E) Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.

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Senior Manager
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Re: CR Airplanes [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2004, 09:50
I think it is E.

The stem says that because of stringent rules since last August, reports about the mechanical problems have increased by 50%. Only E suports the conclusion.

dushver wrote:
Investigators concluded that human failure was not responsible for the fatal airplane crash last August, and since that time new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August.

Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the argument in the passage?

(A) Airplane travel is still relatively safe, despite the increase in reported mechanical problems.

(B) Mechanical problems in airplanes have increased dramatically since last August.

(C) Mechanical problems in airplanes have not increased by 50 percent since last August.

(D) Airlines are less reluctant to report mechanical problems than they previously were.

(E) Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.

_________________

Awaiting response,

Thnx & Rgds,
Chandra

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25 Aug 2004, 10:06
D also supports the conclusion.

Investigators found out that human error was not responsible for disaster. Also new equipments are in uses. Since the humans are not responsible and if they don't report the new equipments will catch it. Assume D and hence the reported incidence of mechanical failures.

Little confusing to me. Whats the OA?

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Senior Manager
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25 Aug 2004, 11:31
The stem says clearly that human error was not responsible. Then, how can we use the word 'reluctant'. Machines cannot be reluctant or mor willing to do any task. They do the task without any feelings like reluctance or something like that. That is why I have not chosen D.

Bhai wrote:
D also supports the conclusion.

Investigators found out that human error was not responsible for disaster. Also new equipments are in uses. Since the humans are not responsible and if they don't report the new equipments will catch it. Assume D and hence the reported incidence of mechanical failures.

Little confusing to me. Whats the OA?

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Thnx & Rgds,
Chandra

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Senior Manager
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25 Aug 2004, 11:31
The stem says clearly that human error was not responsible. Then, how can we use the word 'reluctant'. Machines cannot be reluctant or mor willing to do any task. They do the task without any feelings like reluctance or something like that. That is why I have not chosen D.

Bhai wrote:
D also supports the conclusion.

Investigators found out that human error was not responsible for disaster. Also new equipments are in uses. Since the humans are not responsible and if they don't report the new equipments will catch it. Assume D and hence the reported incidence of mechanical failures.

Little confusing to me. Whats the OA?

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Thnx & Rgds,
Chandra

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25 Aug 2004, 11:58
E should be it
Should the company be willing or reluctant to report the problem has nothing to do with the very reason why the companies believe that the occurence of accidents will diminished by establishing more stringent rules. As E says, if the problem cannot be reported, then all what was undertaken would be futile and the argument is shattered
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Paul

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25 Aug 2004, 12:20
Airline was reluctant to report the failure because they may have thought that they were responsible for it. when the machines started proving it otherwise they started reporting it without reluctance. Just my thought. Supply the OA please.

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Senior Manager
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25 Aug 2004, 12:51
I'd Say C.

Cause and Effect.

Cause: New stringent rules
Effect: More reports of failures

Alternate Cause: More mechanical problems
Alternate Effect: More reports of failures.

C is an assumption that eliminates an alternate cause

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Senior Manager
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25 Aug 2004, 20:30
for the 'scholar' who noted 'clearly E' -- without so much as a line of reasoning, while I think that E's the answer, it's far from being a 'clear' choice
D and E are top two contenders
E is a better choice b/c in order for you to select D, you must assume that airplane companies knew about the problems in the past, but were reluctant to report them

E makes no such assumptions

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Director
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Re: CR Airplanes [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2004, 20:54
I dare to differ. I go with C.

assumption is that b/c of stringent rules reports of mech problems have increased i.e more are coming in light. But it could be that problems themselves have increased since then (rules might be ineffective as ever).

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Senior Manager
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25 Aug 2004, 22:58
Guys OA is option C

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Senior Manager
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26 Aug 2004, 00:02
I am not sure whether using sarcasm as stated below is a good idea. If there is a demand for explanation, it is better to make it pretty straight rather than say something like this.

Sometimes, we all give one-line answers because others have already answered it and we donot like to repeat it or assume that the answer is very obvious and need not be corroborated.

In any case, a straight talk never dampens the spirits of a participant.

lastochka wrote:
for the 'scholar' who noted 'clearly E' -- without so much as a line of reasoning, while I think that E's the answer, it's far from being a 'clear' choice
D and E are top two contenders
E is a better choice b/c in order for you to select D, you must assume that airplane companies knew about the problems in the past, but were reluctant to report them

E makes no such assumptions

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26 Aug 2004, 01:00
SigEpUCI wrote:
I'd Say C.

Cause and Effect.

Cause: New stringent rules
Effect: More reports of failures

Alternate Cause: More mechanical problems
Alternate Effect: More reports of failures.

C is an assumption that eliminates an alternate cause

I got C too. Nice explanation SigEpUCI.

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Senior Manager
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Re: CR Airplanes [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2004, 01:30
Somehow, I am unable to accept C as the lone answer. Because, here, both C and E look as valid assumptions.

C makes it clear that 50% increase in reports is because of the new and stringent rules and not because the problems themselves have gone up.

E makes it clear that the new and stringent rules are facilitating easy detection of the defects.

However, compared to C, E looks vague a bit. Is it the reason why C is preferred to E?

Could you let me know why C is better than E?

dushver wrote:
Investigators concluded that human failure was not responsible for the fatal airplane crash last August, and since that time new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August.

Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the argument in the passage?

(A) Airplane travel is still relatively safe, despite the increase in reported mechanical problems.

(B) Mechanical problems in airplanes have increased dramatically since last August.

(C) Mechanical problems in airplanes have not increased by 50 percent since last August.

(D) Airlines are less reluctant to report mechanical problems than they previously were.

(E) Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.

_________________

Awaiting response,

Thnx & Rgds,
Chandra

Kudos [?]: 9 [0], given: 0

Director
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Re: CR Airplanes [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2004, 02:14
mallelac wrote:
Could you let me know why C is better than E?

Option E: Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.

Stem: "new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August"

Author: Last August, new rules for identifying problems in flights were introduced. That is why the error reports have increased by 50%.

Effect: error reports have increased by 50%
Author's cause: New rules for identifying problems in flights

E is most nearly an inference of the sentence "new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect". It is not an assumption. I guess, the fact that it is inline with author's thoughts might have misled you. E is just a re-statement of the stem.

A valid assumption in such cases would be to find an alternative cause. C makes an alternate cause for the effect.
Effect: error reports have increased by 50%
Alternate cause: The reports were indeed mistakes and not just a new outlook from stringent rules.
(As an example, you may think of this as a case where the airplane director is trying to defend his decision of laying off experienced technicians and recruiting inexperienced freshers. As a result of their inexperience, the mechanical defects have indeed increased, but the director is trying to defend by suggesting an alternate cause. What he has assumed here is that these errors are not real new errors, they are just "present-before-too-but-never-came-up" errors).

Take a look at http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=8311
I had given some examples there.

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Re: CR Airplanes [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2004, 05:01
Excellent!! I got what you are saying.

Thanks..

hardworker_indian wrote:
mallelac wrote:
Could you let me know why C is better than E?

Option E: Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.

Stem: "new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August"

Author: Last August, new rules for identifying problems in flights were introduced. That is why the error reports have increased by 50%.

Effect: error reports have increased by 50%
Author's cause: New rules for identifying problems in flights

E is most nearly an inference of the sentence "new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect". It is not an assumption. I guess, the fact that it is inline with author's thoughts might have misled you. E is just a re-statement of the stem.

A valid assumption in such cases would be to find an alternative cause. C makes an alternate cause for the effect.
Effect: error reports have increased by 50%
Alternate cause: The reports were indeed mistakes and not just a new outlook from stringent rules.
(As an example, you may think of this as a case where the airplane director is trying to defend his decision of laying off experienced technicians and recruiting inexperienced freshers. As a result of their inexperience, the mechanical defects have indeed increased, but the director is trying to defend by suggesting an alternate cause. What he has assumed here is that these errors are not real new errors, they are just "present-before-too-but-never-came-up" errors).

Take a look at http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=8311
I had given some examples there.

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26 Aug 2004, 10:05
In an assumption question, negating the assumption should break the argument. If you negate C, you basically break the argument. If you negate E, the argument doesn't necessarily break, therefor E is not an assumption.

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26 Aug 2004, 14:36
Dear All

I guess its about time for some maintenance.

Please allow me to just set some things in order. this will also help the new guys. lastochka, this is for everyone.. please do not take anything personally. you are a great contributor.

I have said it before and i say it again.. no one is a scholar/expert/guru here. The only person that comes close to being an expert on GMAT Club is AkamaiBrah. Akamai has earned his respect here and even he is not right 100% of the time.

We are all here to learn. Even though i have taken my gmat, i still make mistakes when i explain a problem. If someone says.. its a clear choice , but you think he or she is wrong.. hey ..thats cool.. just be sensitive about it. it really helps other guys to participate. if you cannot resist posting a smart ass comment, i suggest you dont reply to the post. it really contributes nothing to the discussion.

Will i defend you if you were offended by a member? you bet. i will , always.

If we encourage a discussion and keep a friendly place, members realise that its ok to be wrong because other members will help me without making unnecessary smartass comments.

In summary, its OK to be wrong when you post a solution to a problem at GMAT Club. if you know that you did something wrong, thats one less mistake you have to worry about on the test.

Feel the love yet.

Be a friend. You will enjoy your time at GMAT Club.

Sincerely
Praetorian

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26 Aug 2004, 16:58
SigEpUCI wrote:
In an assumption question, negating the assumption should break the argument. If you negate C, you basically break the argument. If you negate E, the argument doesn't necessarily break, therefor E is not an assumption.

I think that's the key here. Good explanation.

And to afife76, sorry about my earlier comment. The question is a tricky one, and I snapped at the 'clearly E' comment. Not very courteous of me, I know...

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Re: CR Airplanes [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2004, 01:57
dushver wrote:
Investigators concluded that human failure was not responsible for the fatal airplane crash last August, and since that time new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August.

Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the argument in the passage?

(A) Airplane travel is still relatively safe, despite the increase in reported mechanical problems.

(B) Mechanical problems in airplanes have increased dramatically since last August.

(C) Mechanical problems in airplanes have not increased by 50 percent since last August.

(D) Airlines are less reluctant to report mechanical problems than they previously were.

(E) Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.

Let me join this wonderful discussion

First, I want to express support to Praet's comments. We are all here to learn and there can be no expert in GMAT other than ETS. So only when ETS nick will appear on this forum we'll all be listening to that guy :)

Second, I agree with Sigepuci on this question but just want to add to his analysis

The argument: "reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August because of the STRINGENT RULES"

If we find another reason why reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased then this would weaken the argument. Now, if we don't assume C then it is true that "mechanical problems in airplanes HAVE increased by 50 percent since last August" - here is that another reason that weakens the argument. Reports have increased not because of the STRINGENT RULES but because of the ACTUAL INCREASE IN MECHANICAL PROBLEMS

To rule out the possibility of this second reason the argument needs to assume that there was no ACTUAL INCREASE IN MECHANICAL PROBLEMS. Only then the first reason (STRINGENT RULES) can be given credit

Now E. Well, even if E is not true, that is even if mechanical problems in airplanes HAVE NOT become easier to detect, reports could still increase because of the more STRINGENT RULES, couldn't they?

Now D. Even if D is not true, that is even if airlines are NOT LESS reluctant to report mechanical problems, reports could still increase because of the more STRINGENT RULES, couldn't they?

The answer is C, would retire from the world of GMAT if it isn't :)

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Re: CR Airplanes   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2004, 01:57

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# Investigators concluded that human failure was not

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