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Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are

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Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are about the size of Earth's moon and are composed mostly or entirely of rock and metal. Ganymede and Callisto are larger and roughly half ice. Thus, these four moons are somewhat analogous to the planets of the solar system, in which the rock- and metal-rich inner planets are distinct from the much larger gas- and ice-rich outer planets. Jupiter's moons are, however, more "systematic": many of their properties vary continuously with distance from Jupiter. For example, Io is ice-free, Europa has a surface shell of ice, and while Ganymede and Callisto are both ice-rich, outermost Callisto has more.

This compositional gradient has geological parallels. Io is extremely geologically active, Europa seems to be active on a more modest scale, and Ganymede has undergone bouts of activity in its geological past. Only Callisto reveals no geological activity. In similar fashion, Callisto's surface is very heavily cratered from the impact of comets and asteroids; Ganymede, like Earth's moon, is heavily cratered in parts; Europa is very lightly cratered; and no craters have been detected on Io, even though Jupiter's gravity attracts comets and asteroids passing near it, substantially increasing the bombardment rate of the inner moons compared to that of the outer ones. But because of Io's high degree of geological activity, its surface undergoes more-or-less continuous volcanic resurfacing.
1. According to the passage, the difference in the amount of crate ring on Callisto's and Io's respective surfaces can probably be explained by the difference between these two moons with respect to which of the following factors?

(A) Size
(B) Ice content
(C) The rate of bombardment by comets and asteroids
(D) The influence of Jupiter's other moons
(E) The level of geological activity



2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the second paragraph of the passage?

(A) To provide further evidence of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
(B) To present a comprehensive theory to explain the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
(C) To explain the significance of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
(D) To introduce facts that contradict conventional assumptions about Jupiter's four largest moons
(E) To contrast the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons with the characteristics of the planets of the solar system



3. The author's reference to Jupiter's gravity in line 25 serves primarily to

(A) indicate why the absence of craters on Io's surface is surprising
(B) explain the presence of craters on the surface of Jupiter's four largest moons
(C) provide an explanation for the lack of geological activity on Callisto
(D) contrast Jupiter's characteristics with the characteristics of its four largest moons
(E) illustrate the similarity between Jupiter's four largest moons and the planets of the solar system



Originally posted by betterscore on 08 Aug 2012, 17:00.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 15 Aug 2019, 20:31, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (152).
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2015, 17:19
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1
Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are about the size of Earth's moon and are composed mostly or entirely of rock and metal. Ganymede and Callisto are larger and roughly half ice. Thus, these four moons are somewhat analogous to the planets of the solar system, in which the rock- and metal-rich inner planets are distinct from the much larger gas- and ice-rich outer planets. Jupiter's moons are, however, more "systematic": many of their properties vary continuously with distance from Jupiter. For example, Io is ice-free, Europa has a surface shell of ice, and while Ganymede and Callisto are both ice-rich, outermost Callisto has more.

This compositional gradient has geological parallels. Io is extremely geologically active, Europa seems to be active on a more modest scale, and Ganymede has undergone bouts of activity in its geological past. Only Callisto reveals no geological activity. In similar fashion, Callisto's surface is very heavily cratered from the impact of comets and asteroids; Ganymede, like Earth's moon, is heavily cratered in parts; Europa is very lightly cratered; and no craters have been detected on Io, even though Jupiter's gravity attracts comets and asteroids passing near it, substantially increasing the bombardment rate of the inner moons compared to that of the outer ones. But because of Io's high degree of geological activity, its surface undergoes more-or-less continuous volcanic resurfacing.

EMPOWERgmat Enhanced Explanation:

This passage was retained in the OG 2016.

Paragraph Summary:
Notes: 1|+| Further -> Icier, resembles solar system, more systematic
Analysis: The first paragraph is not just a report on the inner moons of Jupiter, but also an argument as to the similarity of Jupiter’s moons to that of the solar system itself. “Thus, these four moons are somewhat analogous to the planets of the solar system” That’s opinion. The rest is evidence supporting that opinion.

Notes: 2|+| Further -> Less geo active
Analysis: Here, the case is being made that the intensity of geological activity on the surface of the moons varies based on the distance from Jupiter. The further out, the less geologically active, and vice-versa.


OG 2015 #11
OG 2016 #11

According to the passage, the difference in the amount of cratering on Callisto's and Io's respective surfaces can probably be explained by the difference between these two moons with respect to which of the following factors?
(A) Size
(B) Ice content
(C) The rate of bombardment by comets and asteroids
(D) The influence of Jupiter's other moons
(E) The level of geological activity

Detail Question
Find the Facts: What causes the difference in cratering? Geologic activity. “because of Io's high degree of geological activity, its surface undergoes more-or-less continuous volcanic resurfacing” so the closer to Jupiter, the more active the volcanic activity, and the volcanoes essentially erase the craters off the surface more frequently, the closer the moon is to Jupiter. Which option says that? E. It’s not about the size, the ice content ,or the influence of Jupiter’s other moons. Those are the 3 easy outs. Option C is the runner up. We know it’s not C because the rate of bombardment intensifies the closer the moon is to Jupiter, but the closer the moon is to Jupiter, the fewer craters, so it can’t be about the bombardment. Again, at the end of paragraph 2, we’re told that the volcanic activity is what wipes the surface.


OG 2015 #12
OG 2016 #12

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the second paragraph of the passage?
(A) To provide further evidence of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
(B) To present a comprehensive theory to explain the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
(C) To explain the significance of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
(D) To introduce facts that contradict conventional assumptions about Jupiter's four largest moons
(E) To contrast the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons with the characteristics of the planets of the solar system

Purpose Question
What’s The Purpose of Paragraph 2? Further proof of systematic relationship of the moons. The further the moon, the greater the catering. That is proof of a system in which the distance from Jupiter impacts the character of the moons. Which option says that? A) To provide further evidence of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
B) Easy Out #1 Is this passage, let alone paragraph 2 actually presenting a COMPREHENSIVE theory? No. How would we know this is a comprehensive treatment. This option has the right flavor, but warps it by making it too extreme.
C) The runner up. Does this passage actually provide information as to how significant this systematic relationship is? No Just because the author is describing the systematic relationship doesn’t automatically make that issue a significant one. That distorts, or in other words warps what the answer should say.
D) Easy Out #2 Left field. Nothing in the passage indicates that these facts used to support this systematic theory counter the conventional thinking. For all we know, this passage might actually reinforce conventional assumptions, and beliefs about the moons.
E) Easy Out #3 Even though there is reference to the similarity of Jupiter’s moons to the planets in the solar system, that’s not automatically the goal if either paragraph. Instead, the author is really just drawing on the familiarity of the solar system to help illustrate what’s going on with Jupiter’s moons.


OG 2015 #13
OG 2016 #13

The author's reference to Jupiter's gravity in line 25 serves primarily to
(A) indicate why the absence of craters on Io's surface is surprising
(B) explain the presence of craters on the surface of Jupiter's four largest moons
(C) provide an explanation for the lack of geological activity on Callisto
(D) contrast Jupiter's characteristics with the characteristics of its four largest moons
(E) illustrate the similarity between Jupiter's four largest moons and the planets of the solar system

Purpose Question
What’s the purpose of the reference to gravity in line 25? The passage points out that we’d expect more craters the closer we got to jupiter because of Jupiter’s gravity, but instead we see fewer craters. That seeming paradox is the point. Which option expresses that idea?
A) Yes! To point out that the absence of craters is not what we’d expect
B) A 180. We know for a fact that not all of the 4 moons have craters. Io is extremely volcanic, and the passage says that “its surface undergoes more-or-less continuous volcanic resurfacing.”
C) Is the entire purpose of the mention of Jupiter’s gravity to talk about the lack of activity on Callisto? No In fact Callisto is month the furthest out.
D) Easy Out #2 Is the purpose of sharing the information in paragraph 2 to contrast Jupiter’s characteristics to that of it’s moon? no.
E) Even though the passage does reference the similarity in P1, is that the purpose of referencing Jupiter’s gravity here? No. The reason why the author is referencing Jupiter’s gravity is to point out why it’s surprising these innermost moons don’t have more craters since they’re more likely to be bombarded.
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2017, 22:03
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Hi Gmatninja, Gmatninja2
Can you explain what is systematic about Jupiter's moons from passage.
From para 1 it talks about ice composition in moons and second para talks about
crates (ie uneven surfaces formed due to impact of comets/asteroids) Through out the passage there are two co-relationships (distance and ice) a (crates and re-surfing of surface of Io due to impact of volcanoes) but how does it make Jupiter's moon systematic? Further more, since earlier sentence talked about its analogy with planet w.r.t material composition what do I infer from : J's moons are systematic

The author uses the word "systematic" to describe Jupiter's moons as following a regular pattern (i.e., arranged in an ordered fashion). Ice content and geological activity are two properties of the moons that "vary continuously with distance from Jupiter"; thus, those two properties follow a regular, ordered pattern. In contrast, say another planet has 5 moons, A through E, where A is closest to the planet and E is the farthest away from the planet. If A has a little bit of ice, B has no ice, C has the same amount of ice as A, D has much more ice than A and C, and E has the same amount as E (so B < A=C < D=E), we might be able to say that the ice content generally increases as we get farther away from the planet, but the ice content does not vary continuously with distance. This would be a less regular pattern than that of Jupiter's moons, and we could describe Jupiter's moons as being more "systematic" than the moons of our made-up planet.
Quote:
Also I am confused about options B and C regarding primary purpose of passage.
(B) To present a comprehensive theory to explain the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
Well author does present a theory to explain coverage of ice and less occurrence of craters in Jupiter's planets. Why is this option incorrect?
(C) To explain the significance of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
Author does mention how change in surface due to volcanic eruption led to even surface of Io. Why is this option incorrect?
I completely am foxed that OA is A, can you explain on which grounds (A) makes proper sense?

Question #12 does not ask about the primary purpose of the passage. Instead, it asks about "the purpose of the second paragraph of the passage". In paragraph one, the author describes Jupiter's moons as more systematic than the planets of the solar system. The author then uses ice content as an example to support that statement.

In paragraph two, the author describes two other examples to support the statement that Jupiter's moons are more systematic than the planets of the solar system (geological activity and cratering). Thus, paragraph two provides "further evidence of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons", making (A) the correct choice.

Choice (B) is well beyond the scope of paragraph two, which only provides two examples of characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons that vary systematically. While paragraph two does explain why cratering varies with distance, it does not explain why geological activity varies with distance (or why ice content varies with distance). Paragraph two certainly does not "present a comprehensive theory to explain the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons."

As for choice (C), the author does explain how geological activity affects the surface features of the moons, but the author does not "explain the significance of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons". Why is it significant that Jupiter's moons are more systematic than the planets of the solar system? In other words, why does it matter that "many of their properties vary continuously with distance from Jupiter?" The author describes those characteristics but does not describe why their systematic variations are significant. Choice (C) is beyond the scope of the passage and certainly beyond the scope of paragraph two.
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2018, 07:30
1
P1 - J's 4 moons are defined, with their properties.
P2 - geological activities of J's moons' are defined.

1. According to the passage, the difference in the amount of crate ring on Callisto's and Io's respective surfaces can probably be explained by the difference between these two moons with respect to which of the following factors? - P2
Lines to look for - Only Callisto reveals no geological activity. Callisto's surface is very heavily cratered from the impact of comets and asteroids; no craters have been detected on Io, even though Jupiter's gravity attracts comets and asteroids passing near it,Io is extremely geologically active
(A) Size - No
(B) Ice content - no
(C) The rate of bombardment by comets and asteroids --- comets and asteroids only happens on Callisto but no geological activity. No crate on IO. this one is not a factor on Io.
(D) The influence of Jupiter's other moons --- No
(E) The level of geological activity --- yes
----------------------------------

2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the second paragraph of the passage?
refer P2 ; frankly speaking, I think A,B, C are very close. Let see the difference in words.
(A) To provide further evidence of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons --- P1 provided some difference b/w the moons. P2 take that to next level . This seems the best option.
(B) To present a comprehensive theory to explain the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons --- comprehensive theory .... there is no defined theory here.
(C) To explain the significance of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons --- yes author is describing a systematic relationship or say difference in characteristics but is it explaining the significance of it. I think A is better option then this one. though it is close.
(D) To introduce facts that contradict conventional assumptions about Jupiter's four largest moons ---- contradict conventional assumptions - no such thing
(E) To contrast the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons with the characteristics of the planets of the solar system --- No contrast is defined.
-----------------------------------

3. The author's reference to Jupiter's gravity in line 25 serves primarily to

lines to look for - no craters have been detected on Io, even though Jupiter's gravity attracts comets and asteroids passing near it, substantially increasing the bombardment rate of the inner moons compared to that of the outer ones. Straight A is the answer.

(A) indicate why the absence of craters on Io's surface is surprising
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2012, 14:37
In 5:47 min, My Answers EAA.
1st Question: refer line 19
Only 2nd question bothered me. The contenders were A & B. The word theory in option B is not correct and I think author was providing evidences rather than any theory.
3rd: Line 23-30. Author was explaining a surprising fact. For this type of Q: Once u comprehend the passage portion, cover up the answer choices and try to answer from ur comprehension and then try to eliminate the answer choices. It works best.
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2015, 11:15
[quote=
[size=125]OG 2015 #13
OG 2016 #13

The author's reference to Jupiter's gravity in line 25 serves primarily to
(A) indicate why the absence of craters on Io's surface is surprising
(B) explain the presence of craters on the surface of Jupiter's four largest moons
(C) provide an explanation for the lack of geological activity on Callisto
(D) contrast Jupiter's characteristics with the characteristics of its four largest moons
(E) illustrate the similarity between Jupiter's four largest moons and the planets of the solar system

Purpose Question
What’s the purpose of the reference to gravity in line 25? The passage points out that we’d expect more craters the closer we got to jupiter because of Jupiter’s gravity, but instead we see fewer craters. That seeming paradox is the point. Which option expresses that idea?
A) Yes! To point out that the absence of craters is not what we’d expect
B) A 180. We know for a fact that not all of the 4 moons have craters. Io is extremely volcanic, and the passage says that “its surface undergoes more-or-less continuous volcanic resurfacing.”
C) Is the entire purpose of the mention of Jupiter’s gravity to talk about the lack of activity on Callisto? No In fact Callisto is month the furthest out.
D) Easy Out #2 Is the purpose of sharing the information in paragraph 2 to contrast Jupiter’s characteristics to that of it’s moon? no.
E) Even though the passage does reference the similarity in P1, is that the purpose of referencing Jupiter’s gravity here? No. The reason why the author is referencing Jupiter’s gravity is to point out why it’s surprising these innermost moons don’t have more craters since they’re more likely to be bombarded.[/quote]
[/size]

In Q13, in OG line nums are confusing. The reference to gravity on line 25 doesn't provide any surprise of why craters are low in numbers on Io. The surprising fact is on line 30. So reference to gravity should have been because of B and not A. Though I have to respect official answer but OG should have omitted reference to line num 25 in their question stem 13. Without referring to line num 25, A makes sense.
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2016, 08:06
How will I understand that " volcanoes essentially erase the craters off the surface more frequently, the closer the moon is to Jupiter" as I have no knowledge about it?
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2016, 11:52
NaeemHasan wrote:
How will I understand that " volcanoes essentially erase the craters off the surface more frequently, the closer the moon is to Jupiter" as I have no knowledge about it?

Hi NaeemHasan,

I'd be happy to help. You don't need subject specific knowledge to dissect the meaning of this description.

Let me ask you to take your best take on what you think it means, right or wrong? Try to take it apart piece by piece. I'll provide some guidance thereafter.
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2016, 13:25
NaeemHasan wrote:
EMPOWERgmatMax wrote:
NaeemHasan wrote:
How will I understand that " volcanoes essentially erase the craters off the surface more frequently, the closer the moon is to Jupiter" as I have no knowledge about it?

Hi NaeemHasan,

I'd be happy to help. You don't need subject specific knowledge to dissect the meaning of this description.

Let me ask you to take your best take on what you think it means, right or wrong? Try to take it apart piece by piece. I'll provide some guidance thereafter.


I think it is right. But I don't find any information here that is useful for me to understand the fact.

Hi NaeemHasan,

I think you may have misunderstood what I was asking you. Can you make an attempt to share your best understanding of what "volcanoes essentially erase the craters off the surface more frequently, the closer the moon is to Jupiter" means?

I'll help you from there, but I'd like to see where your understanding lies now first.
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2016, 14:02
NaeemHasan wrote:
Thanks for your continuous help.
I mean that the closer the moon to the Jupiter the greater speed of the removal of the craters.

If I am wrong then kindly elaborate it. I can not understand any more.

Hi NaeemHasan,

Well done! You ABSOLUTELY got it.

The moral of the story is: don't be intimidated by unfamiliar vocab. Gain comfort in the underlying concept. That's a skill you'll be drawing on extensively in B-school, and in the meantime, it's a skill that will help you boost your GMAT Verbal score to help you gain admission.
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2017, 02:57
Hi Gmatninja, Gmatninja2
Can you explain what is systematic about Jupiter's moons from passage.
From para 1 it talks about ice composition in moons and second para talks about
crates (ie uneven surfaces formed due to impact of comets/asteroids) Through out the passage there are two co-relationships (distance and ice) a (crates and re-surfing of surface of Io due to impact of volcanoes) but how does it make Jupiter's moon systematic? Further more, since earlier sentence talked about its analogy with planet w.r.t material composition what do I infer from : J's moons are systematic
Also I am confused about options B and C regarding primary purpose of passage.
(B) To present a comprehensive theory to explain the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
Well author does present a theory to explain coverage of ice and less occurrence of craters in Jupiter's planets. Why is this option incorrect?
(C) To explain the significance of the systematic variation in the characteristics of Jupiter's four largest moons
Author does mention how change in surface due to volcanic eruption led to even surface of Io. Why is this option incorrect?
I completely am foxed that OA is A, can you explain on which grounds (A) makes proper sense?
WR,
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2017, 23:00
finished in 2:49, 0:44, 1:06 ~ 4.5mins = C(got wrong - A is right here),A,A
got one mistake!

I am struggling to get all the right answers in any passage.
Never got all right, do not know how to improve.

any suggestions will be helpful

Thanks,
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2019, 03:09
I have a doubt in OA 1 of the passage.

Crating is created by the impact of outside heavenly bodies, which impact the surface of a planet. How can an internal activity, geology, be responsible for creating craters. And even the passage doesn't suggest that.
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Re: Io and Europa, the inner two of Jupiter's four largest moons, are   [#permalink] 29 Jun 2019, 03:09
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