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# It is believed that military strategists in the medieval

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It is believed that military strategists in the medieval [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2012, 03:06
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It is believed that military strategists in the medieval ages used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of modern aerial surveillance.
(A) used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of
(B) were using manned kites to survey enemy troops anticipating techniques of
(C) had used manned kites, surveyed enemy troops, and anticipated techniques of
(D) used manned kites to survey enemy troops, a technique anticipating
(E) using manned kites to survey enemy troops, were anticipating techniques of

I dont agree with the OA....i'll post my apprehension in the next post so that it does not interfere anyone's thinking process
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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27 Apr 2012, 03:09
I dont agree with the OA....i'll post my apprehension in the next post so that it does not interfere anyone's thinking process

In D, the OA, isnt 'a technique....' wrongly modifying the entire clause 'used manned kites surveying enemy troops' ? the 'a technique.....' partis a noun modifier, not a verb modifier....please help
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(D) used manned kites to survey enemy troops, a technique anticipating

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27 Apr 2012, 09:58
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Hi,

It is believed that military strategists in the medieval ages used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of modern aerial surveillance.

The sentence means that it is believed that in the medieval ages, military strategists used manned kite. They did so to survey enemy troops. This technique of the past led to the modern aerial surveillance.

1. The verb-ing modifier “surveying” is modifying kites because it is not preceded by a comma. However, from the meaning of the sentence, the purpose of using manned kites was to survey the enemy troops. Hence, we must to+verb to denote the purpose.
2. Another verb-ing modifier “anticipating” is modifying the preceding clause “strategists used manned kites”. However, placemen of “so” before this modifier denotes that anticipation was a conscious effort on the part of the strategists. This is certainly not the intended meaning of the sentence. So this part has to be changed.

POE:

(A) used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of. Incorrect for reasons stated above.

(B) were using manned kites to survey enemy troops anticipating techniques of: Incorrect. Firstly, this sentence is providing general information about the strategists and hence must be written in the simple past tense. Use of past continuous is incorrect. Secondly, verb-ing modifier “anticipating” is now modifying “enemy troops”, suggesting that enemy troops anticipated the modern aerial surveillance. This is absolutely illogical.

(C) had used manned kites, surveyed enemy troops, and anticipated techniques of: Incorrect. Firstly, use of past perfect tense is not correct because it is unnecessarily establishing the sequencing here. Secondly, “surveyed” now does not denote the purpose of using the manned kites. “anticipated” again looks like a conscious action done by the strategists.

(D) used manned kites to survey enemy troops, a technique anticipating: CORRECT. “to survey” correctly denotes the purpose now. “a technique anticipating” is modifying the entire clause. We have a noun (a technique) + noun modifier (anticipating modern aerial surveillance). Noun + noun modifiers can zoom into any aspect of the preceding clause to modify it. Here it is modifying the entire clause.

(E) using manned kites to survey enemy troops, were anticipating techniques of: Incorrect. Firstly, verb-ing modifier “using” is illogically modifying “medieval ages”, suggesting they used manned kites. Again, this choice denotes that the strategists were consciously anticipating the modern aerial surveillance. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence.

1. Noun + noun modifiers can modify either a noun entity or the entire preceding clause.
2. When presenting general facts, we must use simple tense (present/past).
3. Be wary of changes in the sentence that distorts the original meaning.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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It is believed that military strategists in the medieval [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2013, 14:22
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It is believed that military strategists in the medieval ages used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of modern aerial surveillance.

(A) used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of
(B) were using manned kites to survey enemy troops anticipating techniques of
(C) had used manned kites, surveyed enemy troops, and anticipated techniques of
(D) used manned kites to survey enemy troops, a technique anticipating
(E) using manned kites to survey enemy troops, were anticipating techniques of
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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval age [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2013, 16:34
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It is believed that military strategists in the medieval ages used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of modern aerial surveillance.

(A) used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of >>> Wrong. "so anticipating" is wrong modifier, hence, coveys wrongmeaning. The strategists did not anticipate techniques. Must be "the techniques used to anticipate something".

(B) were using manned kites to survey enemy troops anticipating techniques of >>> Wrong. Because "anticipating" modifies enemy troops. that's wrong.

(C) had used manned kites, surveyed enemy troops, and anticipated techniques >>> Wrong. Not parallel

(D) used manned kites to survey enemy troops, a technique anticipating >>> Correct. Good structure and correct modifier

(E) using manned kites to survey enemy troops, were anticipating techniques of >>> Wrong. Not parallel.

So, I vote for D.
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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2013, 02:42
Concepts Tested – Meaning, Verb Tense
The sentence, in its original form, makes no sense. It appears as though the kites
are doing the surveying on their own. Also the last part of the sentence after the
comma (so anticipating....) makes no logical sense with the rest of the sentence.
So eliminate A

B - Unnecessarily uses the past continuous tense. Also distorts the meaning by
making it appear as though the enemy troops were anticipating something.

C - Makes ‘used’, ‘surveyed’, and ‘anticipated’ parallel but this is not what the
sentence is implying. The manned kites were actually used to do the survey.

Between D and E, E again distorts the meaning by suggesting that the military
strategists were anticipating something. ‘Anticipating’ in the original sentence
implies ‘preceding’ or ‘was a forerunner of’. D gets this meaning across correctly
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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval age [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2013, 04:31
pqhai wrote:
It is believed that military strategists in the medieval ages used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of modern aerial surveillance.

(A) used manned kites surveying enemy troops, so anticipating techniques of >>> Wrong. "so anticipating" is wrong modifier, hence, coveys wrongmeaning. The strategists did not anticipate techniques. Must be "the techniques used to anticipate something".

(B) were using manned kites to survey enemy troops anticipating techniques of >>> Wrong. Because "anticipating" modifies enemy troops. that's wrong.

(C) had used manned kites, surveyed enemy troops, and anticipated techniques >>> Wrong. Not parallel

(D) used manned kites to survey enemy troops, a technique anticipating >>> Correct. Good structure and correct modifier

(E) using manned kites to survey enemy troops, were anticipating techniques of >>> Wrong. Not parallel.

So, I vote for D.

@carcass - Although I picked D, I had a doubt - a technique after the comma is modifying the entire phrase before the comma or just the enemy troops. Can you please explain.

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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2013, 06:51
The sentence has a clear split of verb tense. A simple past "used" and modifier "a technique..." is best in Option D
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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2013, 09:57
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2014, 00:02
I think I'm starting to appreciate the Noun+Noun Modifier nuances.

Thanks e-gmat!

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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2015, 22:55
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01 May 2017, 22:33
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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2017, 09:26
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: It is believed that military strategists in the medieval   [#permalink] 28 Jun 2017, 09:26
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