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# It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually

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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2012, 09:28
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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

Please explain C & D along with the preference with reasons thanks in advance
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by JarvisR on 07 Aug 2015, 05:58, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2012, 09:37
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hi ashdah,

A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
misplaced modifier-"which " is modifying earth -incorrect
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
misplaced modifier-"which " is modifying earth -incorrect
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
covering is a verb+ing modifier which is modifying the full clause " actually......on earth"-correct
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
wordy and awkward
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering
wordy and awkward

Hope this helps !
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2012, 16:34
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Capricorn369 wrote:
dheerajv wrote:
@capricorn - All pronouns must refer back to a noun.
For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil." All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence "She gave it to him." is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous.

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@dheerajv - I understand you explanation but "it" is refering to the subject of the second clause, the landlocked Caspian. The landlocked Caspian is a modifier and placed rightly. I don't think thats the reason for eliminating the option D.
Consider the below sentence, which is correct -
Because it had been cleaned prior to the guests' arrival, the old chest of drawers looked brand new.

Let me know what you think.
Cheers!

Hi Folks, I found the issue with option D and why it is not correct.

D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
-> As you can see, "it" is actually referring and modifying "sea", not "landlocked Caspian" here because both (it & sea) are in the same clause.

Check the below example -
Although many new restaurants have recently been opened across the country and its sales increased dramatically, the restaurant company’s sales at restaurants open for more than a year have declined.
->This sentence is incorrect because of modifier issue. "its" is modifying "many new restaurants".

Questions, Please let me know. Cheers!
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2014, 11:20
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JarvisR wrote:
Hi,
I request the members to review below analysis and share their inputs.I appreciate the support on this.
Regards.

Question:
It is called a sea, but
the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth,
which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

I read the OG explanation for this but it's not very clear to me.

Q1) Is there any ambiguity in the usage of which in option A?
Here which link/modify Earth or the largest lake on Earth to compare it against "North America's Lake Superior".
IMO the latter, largest lake on Earth (which is Caspian), wld be the right choice as saying "Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's" wld be illogical.So usage of which is grammatically correct here without any ambiguity.

Now, if we look the argument we would see that it says "Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior."
So I believe an elegant/clean construction would be the one where "Caspian" is compared directly with NA's lake instead of the largest lake on earth.
1)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth and covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
OR,
2)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Q2)Also what's wrong with option B apart from which issue similar to A. Is usage of actually correct here?

Hi JarvisaR,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

I completely agree with you that "which" in Choice A and B "logically" CAN ONLY refer to "the largest lake on Earth" and not just "Earth". However, the problem that we face in these choices is that both these entities "the largest lake" and "Earth" are singular noun entities and agree in number with the singular verb "covers". hence, usage of "which" leaves that little room for grammatical ambiguity as to what does "which" refer to.

Choice C completely does away with that little possible grammatical ambiguity by using "comma + verb-ing modifier covering". Now, there is no doubt that "covering" refers to Caspian.

Now regarding the usage of "actually" in choice B, is it incorrect? IMHO, it is not, but it is certainly not needed in the sentence.

hope this helps.
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2012, 09:39
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@Chris: You have actually reversed the reasons for C and D: It is C that holds good for succinctness: just an oversight, I suppose.

Quote:
GODSPEED wrote: Your observation is correct; this is a modifier for "landlocked Caspian". So, "it" is clearly referring to "landlocked Caspian", no errors there.....I zeroed down to C vs. D, only reason for elimination for D, I can think of is wordiness...

D is not bad just because of wordiness alone. There are other solid reasons for rejecting it , such as,

1. It is stylistically wrong because of using both -though and but –in the same sentence, which mean the same thing. It is the error of redundancy.
2. The first part (excluding the introductory phrase) and the second part, - both ICs- are just joined by a comma. So it is a run –on.
3. It errs on modification; the landlocked Caspian should be immediately placed after the comma.
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17 Dec 2012, 21:23
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pankajjindal25 wrote:
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

( This option D cannot find an error with it ...)

Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

The logic of the sentence is :
even though caspian sea is called a sea, it is actually the largest landlocked lake on earth that bla bla bla.

The sentence needs a contrast, but the answer choice A doesn't shows it.

B uses a "contrast" word but has a modifier issue. The "although" clause expects a "landlocked caspian" just after a comma but instead it gets "actually".

C correctly uses "though", implying to show contrast.

The correct way "though" is used is:
Though [clause], [Independent clause].
D incorrectly uses without using a comma. Moreover it also uses SECOND CONTRAST word "BUT" which doesn't adds to the meaning.

E is wrong in that it changes the sequence of the sentence.
It should be" Despite being called a sea, the landlocked caspian is actually the largest lake on earth".

C sounds fine.
+1C
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 04:06
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thangvietnam wrote:
dentobizz wrote:
which can jump over small intervening constructions to modify the noun or noun phrase, provided those constructions also modify the preciding noun and cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. In A and B the prepositional phrase 'on earth' doesnot directy modify caspian and it can be shifted around.so which cannot jump.

Posted from my mobile device

great reply but not clear, pls help

because "is " is state verb, "which" can modify "greatest lake on earth". This means "which" can jum over "on earth" to modify "greatest lake" and A and B is correct.

I learn gmat incorrectly which is hard.

this sentence is wrong be cause "incorrectly" dose not modify "gmat" and "which" can not jump over "gmat" to modify "gmat"

pls help. I am confused.

I think A and B is correct.
if we think that "which" modifying slightly far noun is inferior, A and B can be eliminated.

pls help

A piece of information that can suffice everyone here.

Subject never resides in prepositional phrase, EXCEPT when quantity is expressed.
Consider an example:
The box of nails, which is black in color, is kept on the table.
Here the prepositional phrase is "of nails". But it can't be the subject because we have not used any quantity word here.
Now consider this:
Some of the stones, which were thrown by Sam in Thames, were round in shape.
Here the prepositional phrase is "of the stones" but since SOME is a quantity word here, hence subject is "stones" not "some of the stones".

More example to clear the doubt. (The subject is green in color.)
1) Seven of the eleven medals, which were all gold, were won by Jamaican sprinters.
2) Most of the bananas have been bought from the nearby market.
3) A number of supporters of the the campaign have extended their support for Democratic Party.
4) THE number of birds migrating to the Marina Beach is increasing year by year.

So remember one thing, if any quantity word precedes the prepositional phrase, then your subject will reside in the prepositional phrase.

In the question above, "greatest lake on Earth, which...." here which will modify greatest lake only not Earth.

Hope that will clear all your doubt.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2017, 22:16
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brightandamen wrote:
Can somebody explain why we use "covering" instead of "covers"?

Hi brightandamen, are you referring to option C?

In option C, if covers had been used, at the very least there should have been an and before covers. So, the structure of C in that case would have been:

the landlocked Caspian is.... and covers...

Parallelism is between two verbs: is and covers. While this would have been a grammatically correct sentence, it would have suggested that landlocked Caspian has two distinct properties (1. landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth. 2. landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size).

However, the ideal meaning is represented by option C. The fact that landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, is actually a description/manifestation of the fact that the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth.

In such cases, present participles (covering....) are an ideal usage.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Present participles, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2012, 02:49
ChrisLele wrote:
I received a PM on this one, so I am replying (though it is a good one and I would have replied anyways had I seen it first ).

In the original sentence, 'Earth' should not be modified by a phrase that is clearly intended to modify the Caspian Sea (I mean lake ). Thus, we can get rid of (A) and (B). Get rid of 'E' because of the wordy 'being.'

Now, I can tackle the original question addressed in the PM: the difference between (C) and (D).

(C) is awkward because of the 'but it.' This awkwardness can also be attributed to the fact that we are separating 'though called a sea' and the Caspian by an intervening phrase that is itself awkward.

(D) on the other is succinct. What is commonly called a sea? The Caspian, which follows, 'though called a sea.' We no longer have the unnecessary 'it'. Typically, when an answer choice adds an 'it' this should clue you in that the answer choice is becoming less succinct, and thus likely to be favored on the GMAT.

Hope that helps .

It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

I don't quite understand the reason to eliminate option B.
"X preposition Y, which .." - 'which' could refer to either of X or Y depending on which one of the two it logically and grammatically connects to.

One more question around option C:
"Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, covering ..." -> Could ", covering ..." be modifying the lake or Earth just as ", which .." does?
OR, does ", covering .." only modify the subject?
Thank you.

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2012, 22:57
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers which wrongly modifies Earth
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers Same as A
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering Covering wrongly modies Earth, it should modify Caspian lake
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers It refers to sea when it should refer to the lake
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering Correct!!!

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 09:40
thangvietnam wrote:
dentobizz wrote:
which can jump over small intervening constructions to modify the noun or noun phrase, provided those constructions also modify the preciding noun and cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. In A and B the prepositional phrase 'on earth' doesnot directy modify caspian and it can be shifted around.so which cannot jump.

Posted from my mobile device

great reply but not clear, pls help

because "is " is state verb, "which" can modify "greatest lake on earth". This means "which" can jum over "on earth" to modify "greatest lake" and A and B is correct.

I learn gmat incorrectly which is hard.

this sentence is wrong be cause "incorrectly" dose not modify "gmat" and "which" can not jump over "gmat" to modify "gmat"

pls help. I am confused.

I think A and B is correct.
if we think that "which" modifying slightly far noun is inferior, A and B can be eliminated.

pls help

Hi thang,
I will try and give you an explanation as Ron had given about usage of which

Usage of which--Ron mgmt
nouns that are modified by prepositional phrases can still be the referent of 'which' even if they are a few words distant from it.
This usually happens when the immediately preceding noun is grammatically incompatible with the verb after "which".

For example: "The picture of my brothers, which was taken last year in Mexico, is one of my favorites."

You might object to this sentence on the grounds that 'which' might be taken to modify 'brothers'. And, in a strict sort of way, you'd be right.
But here's the catch: There's really no other reasonable way to write this sentence. You just can't get 'picture' next to the 'which' clause without creating total nonsense, or splitting the sentence into 2 smaller sentences.
plus, 'brothers' is plural, and is incompatible with 'which WAS'.
This is an interesting point, though, and subtle at that.

Marcab's example above are good as well. They can help you understand.

I learn gmat incorrectly which is hard.--WRONG
I learn Gmat, copyright of Gmac, which is hard exam--correct
I incorrectly learn gmat, which is hard--Correct

If doubts remain , do post in the forum again.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 06:22
thank you , dentobiz

the explanation of Ron is correct and concise. I write again

if you have: X of Y, which

if Y work, which refer to Y
if Y dose not work, and X work, which refer to X

I understand that if Y is eligible to be modified by "Which", "which" refers to Y regardless of X which can be eligible or not eligible to be modified by "which" . Y has priority. if Y is eligible, "which" must refer to Y
come back to the question here,

because "earth" is eligible to be modified by "which covers", this phrase refers to "earth" and this make no sense, A and B are wrong.

the e-gmat artical is different. according to this article, "which "can jump to modify the far noun if the prepositional phrase following the noun modifies that noun and can not be placed in other place. This is quite different. According to this article, "earth" can be placed in somewhere else and "which" can not jump. A and B are wrong.

so, e gmat article succefully defense why A and B are wrong. I am satisfied. but this method require us to test whether the prepotional phase following the noun can be placed in other place. this job is time consuming.

regarding the Ron' rule. to defense A and B are wrong, we have to admit that " earth" is eligible to be modified by "which" and this make no sense.
I find it hard to admit that "earth" is eligible to be modified by "which.

pls explain clearly why A and B are wrong. pls explain what method do you use, e gmat method or Ron's method.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 07:05
both e gmat article and Ron' rule are correct but not enough,

I summarize as following

if we have : X of Y, which

- Y is not elible to be modified by "which"
- Y modifies X and can not be placed elswhere

if Y is eligible to be modified by "which", "which" modify Y

if I have

the boxes of toys, which are nice, are mine

then
"which" modifies "toys", of course.

pls confirm above thinking. Thank you
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2013, 03:02
I am confused. This is #48 og13 and should be studied carefully.

pls read the following og explanation. Og explanation said that both "earth" and "the largest lake on Earth" can not be referent of "which covers..."

I do not understand why "the largest lake on Earth" can not be referent of "which covers..."

the folloing is og explanation of why A is wrong.

A The referent of which is unclear.
Grammatically, its antecedent cannot be the
landlocked Caspian, so it must be eitherEarth
or the largest lake on Earth. The latter is a
little odd, because the sentence has already
said that the lake in question is the Caspian,
so one wouldexpect and instead of which.
For these reasons and because Earth
immediatelyprecedes which, the sentence
appears to say, illogically, that Earth covers
more than four times the surface area of
Lake Superior.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 03:00
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GMAT prefers that the modifier touches the noun modified. However, This is not alway possible and

noun+modifer 1+modifier 2

is correct, though not prefered. (remember between modifier 2 and the noun, there must be another modifier of that noun. If the phrase inserted is not the noun modifier, the pattern is wrong)

because the pattern is correct but not prefered, we should choose C not A or B.

this is why in some sc problem, noun modifying the far noun is considered incorrect and in other sc problems, noun modifying the far noun appears in the official answers.

similarly, the gmat prefers that the object touches the verb but the objects far from its verb is acceptable. in some sc problem, the object far from verb is considered an error while in other sc problems, the object far the verb appear in the official answers.

I call this PREFERENCE, NOT GRAMMAR RULE.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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12 May 2014, 09:40
ChrisLele wrote:
I received a PM on this one, so I am replying (though it is a good one and I would have replied anyways had I seen it first ).

In the original sentence, 'Earth' should not be modified by a phrase that is clearly intended to modify the Caspian Sea (I mean lake ). Thus, we can get rid of (A) and (B). Get rid of 'E' because of the wordy 'being.'

Now, I can tackle the original question addressed in the PM: the difference between (C) and (D).

(C) is awkward because of the 'but it.' This awkwardness can also be attributed to the fact that we are separating 'though called a sea' and the Caspian by an intervening phrase that is itself awkward.

(D) on the other is succinct. What is commonly called a sea? The Caspian, which follows, 'though called a sea.' We no longer have the unnecessary 'it'. Typically, when an answer choice adds an 'it' this should clue you in that the answer choice is becoming less succinct, and thus likely to be favored on the GMAT.

Hope that helps .

"which" close to "earth" is not a mistake. please, read my previous posting to find the e gmat article on this point.

so, "which" correctly modifies "greatest lake on earth"

A, B are wrong because "which" clause here supplies more information on the greatest lake. there is no reason why Landlock is the greatest lake.
in C, the meaning is quite different. "comma+doing" show a reason why Landlocked is the greatest lake. this is the intended meaning.

if choice A stand alone, no one say it is wrong. but if A stand besides C, it is clear that the intended meaning is in C. I call the meaning in A "distorted meaning". "distorted meaning" is grammatical and logic if it stand alone. however, if it stand besides the intended meaning, it is considered distorted. this case is hardest case for us because we can not use grammar or logicness to eliminate the distorted meaning. instead, we use have to find out which choice is more logic. gmat has right to test us this kind of error because gmat want us not to convey the distorted meaning.

pls, comment on my idea.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2014, 07:41
Hi,
I request the members to review below analysis and share their inputs.I appreciate the support on this.
Regards.

Question:
It is called a sea, but
the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth,
which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

I read the OG explanation for this but it's not very clear to me.

Q1) Is there any ambiguity in the usage of which in option A?
Here which link/modify Earth or the largest lake on Earth to compare it against "North America's Lake Superior".
IMO the latter, largest lake on Earth (which is Caspian), wld be the right choice as saying "Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's" wld be illogical.So usage of which is grammatically correct here without any ambiguity.

Now, if we look the argument we would see that it says "Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior."
So I believe an elegant/clean construction would be the one where "Caspian" is compared directly with NA's lake instead of the largest lake on earth.
1)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth and covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
OR,
2)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Q2)Also what's wrong with option B apart from which issue similar to A. Is usage of actually correct here?
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2014, 20:43
JarvisR wrote:
Q1) Is there any ambiguity in the usage of which in option A?

In this OE, the OG actually goes to a great extent in mentioning that because Earth immediately precedes which, the sentence appears to say, illogically, that Earth covers more than four times the surface area of Lake Superior.

There are many other sentences in OG, that confirm GMAT's position in this regard:

#13, option E: The relative clause beginning with which apparently (but nonsensically) describes the closest nouns, mud or clay, rather than bricks

#105, option D: Versions of the sentence that use the relative pronoun which indicate that the telephone has become a mass medium.

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses the relative pronoun which, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2014, 07:12
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
egmat wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
Hi,
I request the members to review below analysis and share their inputs.I appreciate the support on this.
Regards.

Question:
It is called a sea, but
the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth,
which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

I read the OG explanation for this but it's not very clear to me.

Q1) Is there any ambiguity in the usage of which in option A?
Here which link/modify Earth or the largest lake on Earth to compare it against "North America's Lake Superior".
IMO the latter, largest lake on Earth (which is Caspian), wld be the right choice as saying "Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's" wld be illogical.So usage of which is grammatically correct here without any ambiguity.

Now, if we look the argument we would see that it says "Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior."
So I believe an elegant/clean construction would be the one where "Caspian" is compared directly with NA's lake instead of the largest lake on earth.
1)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth and covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
OR,
2)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Q2)Also what's wrong with option B apart from which issue similar to A. Is usage of actually correct here?

Hi JarvisaR,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

I completely agree with you that "which" in Choice A and B "logically" CAN ONLY refer to "the largest lake on Earth" and not just "Earth". However, the problem that we face in these choices is that both these entities "the largest lake" and "Earth" are singular noun entities and agree in number with the singular verb "covers". hence, usage of "which" leaves that little room for grammatical ambiguity as to what does "which" refer to.

Choice C completely does away with that little possible grammatical ambiguity by using "comma + verb-ing modifier covering". Now, there is no doubt that "covering" refers to Caspian.

Now regarding the usage of "actually" in choice B, is it incorrect? IMHO, it is not, but it is certainly not needed in the sentence.

hope this helps.
Thanks.
SJ

Thank you Sharddha.
I re-tried this Q today and got this one right. So thought of sharing my analysis..
Intended meaning:
1: Though LC is called a sea, it is the largest lake on Earth.
2: LC covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
>>
1: Earth covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior => This doesn't make sense.
2: Additionally here which seems to modify the obj of the sentence where as it actually needs to modify the sub LC. This can be another reason to cross this option apart from "which" issue?

B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
>>Same as A?

C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
>>Correct for obvious reason.

D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
>>Though and But redundant;
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering
>>called modifies lake not correct.. The largest lake,being called a sea, is the LC...
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2015, 05:23
egmat wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
Hi,
I request the members to review below analysis and share their inputs.I appreciate the support on this.
Regards.

Question:
It is called a sea, but
the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth,
which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

I read the OG explanation for this but it's not very clear to me.

Q1) Is there any ambiguity in the usage of which in option A?
Here which link/modify Earth or the largest lake on Earth to compare it against "North America's Lake Superior".
IMO the latter, largest lake on Earth (which is Caspian), wld be the right choice as saying "Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's" wld be illogical.So usage of which is grammatically correct here without any ambiguity.

Now, if we look the argument we would see that it says "Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior."
So I believe an elegant/clean construction would be the one where "Caspian" is compared directly with NA's lake instead of the largest lake on earth.
1)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth and covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
OR,
2)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Q2)Also what's wrong with option B apart from which issue similar to A. Is usage of actually correct here?

Hi JarvisaR,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

I completely agree with you that "which" in Choice A and B "logically" CAN ONLY refer to "the largest lake on Earth" and not just "Earth". However, the problem that we face in these choices is that both these entities "the largest lake" and "Earth" are singular noun entities and agree in number with the singular verb "covers". hence, usage of "which" leaves that little room for grammatical ambiguity as to what does "which" refer to.

Choice C completely does away with that little possible grammatical ambiguity by using "comma + verb-ing modifier covering". Now, there is no doubt that "covering" refers to Caspian.

Now regarding the usage of "actually" in choice B, is it incorrect? IMHO, it is not, but it is certainly not needed in the sentence.

hope this helps.
Thanks.
SJ

Hi, I'm actually following all of your grammar lessons here; In the lesson called "Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun" you described the usage of "which" in such cases as stated above --> hence, usage of "which" leaves that little room for grammatical ambiguity as to what does "which" refer to. --> so, according to your lesson, I don't see any ambiguity here - on earth is a prepos... phrase.

It's just C that look better than choice B, but choice B is also correct, or ?

Here are my 2 c... regarding choice B and C:
(B) Here "which" can max. refer to largest lake on earth, so it can not reach Caspian --> Actually, it would be correct to say that landlocked caspian (is the subject) covers more than.... in choice (C) Using Verb-ING modifier we can reach the subject of the preceding sentence landlocked Caspian, hence C is correct.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually   [#permalink] 06 Jan 2015, 05:23

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