It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually

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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2012, 19:17
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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

( This option D cannot find an error with it ...)

Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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17 Dec 2012, 20:13
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pankajjindal25 wrote:
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

( This option D cannot find an error with it ...)

Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

In (D) Though-----------But -- construction makes this choice incorrect. You do not need two terms to show the contrast, additionally the placement of modifier should be closer to the subject (as done in C.

HTH
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17 Dec 2012, 20:23
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pankajjindal25 wrote:
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

( This option D cannot find an error with it ...)

Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

The logic of the sentence is :
even though caspian sea is called a sea, it is actually the largest landlocked lake on earth that bla bla bla.

The sentence needs a contrast, but the answer choice A doesn't shows it.

B uses a "contrast" word but has a modifier issue. The "although" clause expects a "landlocked caspian" just after a comma but instead it gets "actually".

C correctly uses "though", implying to show contrast.

The correct way "though" is used is:
Though [clause], [Independent clause].
D incorrectly uses without using a comma. Moreover it also uses SECOND CONTRAST word "BUT" which doesn't adds to the meaning.

E is wrong in that it changes the sequence of the sentence.
It should be" Despite being called a sea, the landlocked caspian is actually the largest lake on earth".

C sounds fine.
+1C
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18 Dec 2012, 00:44
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The most important thing to worry about D here is that its a run on sentence.
Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth---Complete sentence
the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.- Complete sentence.
They dont make sense together without using some subordinating conjunction.
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18 Dec 2012, 04:34
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dentobizz wrote:
pankajjindal25 wrote:
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

( This option D cannot find an error with it ...)

Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

In (D) Though-----------But -- construction makes this choice incorrect. You do not need two terms to show the contrast, additionally the placement of modifier should be closer to the subject (as done in C.

HTH

additionally the sentence structure of C is correct { clause modifier, complete sent/ independent clause, participial modifier}
while D has {clause/incomplete sentence, coordinating conj.(but), independent clause, independent clause}--a coordinating conjunction can only join 2 independent clauses ie complete sentences NOT a clause and a sentence as done in D {Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth}. Moreover to join to independent clauses you need comma+for/and/nor/but/or/yet/so or semicolon but ( it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers -----uses only a comma that is wrong.
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18 Dec 2012, 08:18
D also does not have sense because it seems clearly as the SEA is the largest lake in the world. If you read carefully you can figure out the error almost almost immediately

Me too tought about D and I picke it in first instance.

Correct me if I'm wrong
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18 Dec 2012, 08:42
Hii Carcass.
I feel otherwise.
It seems that what is being called as sea is actually the largest lake on earth.
For your assistance, I am again quoting that below: Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth.
I hope you get what I intend to mean.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2012, 09:29
Any way we have catched the point.

Nice question, after all
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2012, 07:32
This is #49 in og13 which is problematic

A and B are wrong only because "which..." is far from "largest lake". but this is not an absolute error but inferiou error because in many gmatprep questions, "which relative clause "modifying slighly far noun appears in correct answer. e gmat has an artical talking of this point. pls search to find the artical.

there is no other errors in A and B.

is my thinking correct. ?
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2012, 08:56
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which can jump over small intervening constructions to modify the noun or noun phrase, provided those constructions also modify the preciding noun and cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. In A and B the prepositional phrase 'on earth' doesnot directy modify caspian and it can be shifted around.so which cannot jump.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 00:23
dentobizz wrote:
which can jump over small intervening constructions to modify the noun or noun phrase, provided those constructions also modify the preciding noun and cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. In A and B the prepositional phrase 'on earth' doesnot directy modify caspian and it can be shifted around.so which cannot jump.

Posted from my mobile device

great reply but not clear, pls help

because "is " is state verb, "which" can modify "greatest lake on earth". This means "which" can jum over "on earth" to modify "greatest lake" and A and B is correct.

I learn gmat incorrectly which is hard.

this sentence is wrong be cause "incorrectly" dose not modify "gmat" and "which" can not jump over "gmat" to modify "gmat"

pls help. I am confused.

I think A and B is correct.
if we think that "which" modifying slightly far noun is inferior, A and B can be eliminated.

pls help
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 03:06
thangvietnam wrote:
dentobizz wrote:
which can jump over small intervening constructions to modify the noun or noun phrase, provided those constructions also modify the preciding noun and cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. In A and B the prepositional phrase 'on earth' doesnot directy modify caspian and it can be shifted around.so which cannot jump.

Posted from my mobile device

great reply but not clear, pls help

because "is " is state verb, "which" can modify "greatest lake on earth". This means "which" can jum over "on earth" to modify "greatest lake" and A and B is correct.

I learn gmat incorrectly which is hard.

this sentence is wrong be cause "incorrectly" dose not modify "gmat" and "which" can not jump over "gmat" to modify "gmat"

pls help. I am confused.

I think A and B is correct.
if we think that "which" modifying slightly far noun is inferior, A and B can be eliminated.

pls help

A piece of information that can suffice everyone here.

Subject never resides in prepositional phrase, EXCEPT when quantity is expressed.
Consider an example:
The box of nails, which is black in color, is kept on the table.
Here the prepositional phrase is "of nails". But it can't be the subject because we have not used any quantity word here.
Now consider this:
Some of the stones, which were thrown by Sam in Thames, were round in shape.
Here the prepositional phrase is "of the stones" but since SOME is a quantity word here, hence subject is "stones" not "some of the stones".

More example to clear the doubt. (The subject is green in color.)
1) Seven of the eleven medals, which were all gold, were won by Jamaican sprinters.
2) Most of the bananas have been bought from the nearby market.
3) A number of supporters of the the campaign have extended their support for Democratic Party.
4) THE number of birds migrating to the Marina Beach is increasing year by year.

So remember one thing, if any quantity word precedes the prepositional phrase, then your subject will reside in the prepositional phrase.

In the question above, "greatest lake on Earth, which...." here which will modify greatest lake only not Earth.

Hope that will clear all your doubt.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2012, 08:40
thangvietnam wrote:
dentobizz wrote:
which can jump over small intervening constructions to modify the noun or noun phrase, provided those constructions also modify the preciding noun and cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. In A and B the prepositional phrase 'on earth' doesnot directy modify caspian and it can be shifted around.so which cannot jump.

Posted from my mobile device

great reply but not clear, pls help

because "is " is state verb, "which" can modify "greatest lake on earth". This means "which" can jum over "on earth" to modify "greatest lake" and A and B is correct.

I learn gmat incorrectly which is hard.

this sentence is wrong be cause "incorrectly" dose not modify "gmat" and "which" can not jump over "gmat" to modify "gmat"

pls help. I am confused.

I think A and B is correct.
if we think that "which" modifying slightly far noun is inferior, A and B can be eliminated.

pls help

Hi thang,
I will try and give you an explanation as Ron had given about usage of which

Usage of which--Ron mgmt
nouns that are modified by prepositional phrases can still be the referent of 'which' even if they are a few words distant from it.
This usually happens when the immediately preceding noun is grammatically incompatible with the verb after "which".

For example: "The picture of my brothers, which was taken last year in Mexico, is one of my favorites."

You might object to this sentence on the grounds that 'which' might be taken to modify 'brothers'. And, in a strict sort of way, you'd be right.
But here's the catch: There's really no other reasonable way to write this sentence. You just can't get 'picture' next to the 'which' clause without creating total nonsense, or splitting the sentence into 2 smaller sentences.
plus, 'brothers' is plural, and is incompatible with 'which WAS'.
This is an interesting point, though, and subtle at that.

Marcab's example above are good as well. They can help you understand.

I learn gmat incorrectly which is hard.--WRONG
I learn Gmat, copyright of Gmac, which is hard exam--correct
I incorrectly learn gmat, which is hard--Correct

If doubts remain , do post in the forum again.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2013, 16:17
D has two errors:-
1. Though and But both cannot be used at the same time
2. Meanind issue, it seems that the caspian covers the same are as its rival.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 05:22
thank you , dentobiz

the explanation of Ron is correct and concise. I write again

if you have: X of Y, which

if Y work, which refer to Y
if Y dose not work, and X work, which refer to X

I understand that if Y is eligible to be modified by "Which", "which" refers to Y regardless of X which can be eligible or not eligible to be modified by "which" . Y has priority. if Y is eligible, "which" must refer to Y
come back to the question here,

because "earth" is eligible to be modified by "which covers", this phrase refers to "earth" and this make no sense, A and B are wrong.

the e-gmat artical is different. according to this article, "which "can jump to modify the far noun if the prepositional phrase following the noun modifies that noun and can not be placed in other place. This is quite different. According to this article, "earth" can be placed in somewhere else and "which" can not jump. A and B are wrong.

so, e gmat article succefully defense why A and B are wrong. I am satisfied. but this method require us to test whether the prepotional phase following the noun can be placed in other place. this job is time consuming.

regarding the Ron' rule. to defense A and B are wrong, we have to admit that " earth" is eligible to be modified by "which" and this make no sense.
I find it hard to admit that "earth" is eligible to be modified by "which.

pls explain clearly why A and B are wrong. pls explain what method do you use, e gmat method or Ron's method.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 05:25
another point,

Ron said
"which" is alway preceded by comma on gmat

I understand that "which clause" on gmat alway shows non restrictive information. this is different from general grammar in which "which clause" can refer to restrictive or non restrictive information and can go with or without comma

is my thinking correct?
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 06:05
both e gmat article and Ron' rule are correct but not enough,

I summarize as following

if we have : X of Y, which

- Y is not elible to be modified by "which"
- Y modifies X and can not be placed elswhere

if Y is eligible to be modified by "which", "which" modify Y

if I have

the boxes of toys, which are nice, are mine

then
"which" modifies "toys", of course.

pls confirm above thinking. Thank you
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2016, 07:01
Hi, thanks for your sharing and it's very useful, but I have a question: what's the difference between[" Despite being called a sea, the landlocked caspian is actually the largest lake on earth".] and [(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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18 Jan 2016, 09:29
Zoe
Hi
This seems to be your first posting; welcome and enjoy
Despite being called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake--- ---here it is clear that the introductory modifier modifies the Caspian
E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian --- Here the modifier modifies the largest lake—
There is substantive difference in meaning between the two sentences. Caspian Sea is a proper noun and hence logically, is correctly modified by the modifier while, the largest lake is a feature of the water body, being landlocked. The Caspian is called a sea, not because it is the largest water body, but because, the water is not fresh water like in normal lakes and is saline somewhat. Therefore, the meaning changes in E. due to improper word order.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually   [#permalink] 18 Jan 2016, 09:29

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