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# It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The

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It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 20:07
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It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

OA after some good discussion
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by skamal7 on 02 Jul 2013, 22:20, edited 4 times in total.

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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 20:24
skamal7 wrote:
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

OA after some good discussion

Where is the second boldface kamal?
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 21:04
My evil i missed it and now i have edited the question..Give a shot at this question and a warm welcome for you marcab to come back to forum again!!
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 21:20
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 22:02
In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
The second is not evidence: it's a conclusion: "therefore ...."

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first is not accepted by the argument, it refuses it.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first is simply not evidence.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
IMO CORRECT

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first is not "an intermediate conclusion", it' s a conclusion period. E says that there are two conclusions of the argument, but this is not true as the argument has only one conclusion, so the is no such thing as an intermediate and main conclusion.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 22:05
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It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
First part is correct but the 2nd bold is not an evidence but the conclusion. Incorrect

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
First part is a belief and it does not generalizes any thing. 2nd part is correct. Incorrect

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
1st BF is not a evidence, its just a statement or common belief. Incorrect

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
Not absolutely correct but the best among the rest. CORRECT

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
First bold face is not an intermediate conclusion. 2nd BF is correct
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 22:06
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The structure of the argument is:

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

It is generally believed that X
However, ………..
Therefore, X is not as correct as it is believed.

==> Clearly, the first is a conclusion that the second (also a conclusion) tries to refute.

Note: in real GMAT questions, when you see quotes like:
- It is generally believed that…..
- Although scientist/people believe that……….
- Some of my critics claim that……..
- ....................

You will expect to see the opposite conclusion.

A) The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
Wrong. Because it starts with “therefore”, the second part is a conclusion, not evidence.

B) The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. SHELL GAME. The first is a generalization that archeaologists believed to be true, not the argument accepts as true. The argument actually refutes the archeaologists’ belief.

C) The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. The first is not an evidence, it’s a conclusion because it starts with “it is generally believed that….”.

D) The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
IMO, Correct. The first is a conclusion that the second tries to refute. The second is the main conclusion of the argument.

E) The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. If the first is an intermediate conclusion, the second is main conclusion. Logically, the first should support the second, but it does not.

Waiting for OA.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 22:08
zarollu,
Can you explaib what is the difference between intermediate conclusion and conclusion of argument.
Even option D mentions there are two conclusions right?
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 22:13
pqhai,
Is it so that intermediate conclusion should always support the main conclusion of argument or else it will be a counter premise right?

I have seen you posting many good structures or patterns to attack the CR questions..When you get time please try to post all those tips in a post it will be of great help to people like us
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Last edited by skamal7 on 02 Jul 2013, 22:15, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 22:13
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skamal7 wrote:
zarollu,
Can you explaib what is the difference between intermediate conclusion and conclusion of argument.
Even option D mentions there are two conclusions right?

Yes, that's correct.

But if I say that the first part is an intermediate conclusion and the second is the main, the argument should look like this:

"Some evidence"
1st conclusion (intermediate) commonly accepted supported by the above evidence.
"some other evidence"
2nd conclusion of the overall passage.

Since the first one is not an intermediate conclusion, but it's a conclusion period, my answer is D.

Hope it's clear
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 22:31
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skamal7 wrote:
pqhai,
Is it so that intermediate conclusion should always support the main conclusion of argument or else it will be a counter premise right?

I have seen you posting many good structures or patterns to attack the CR questions..When you get time please try to post all those tips in a post it will be of great help to people like us

Hi skaml7

Thanks for kind words, I appreciate.

Regarding "intermediate conclusion", it is not always counter the main conclusion. It can support the main conclusion also. In real GMAT, there are two types of argument structures
(1) Premises ==> Conclusion
(2) Premises ==> Intermediate conclusion ==> Main conclusion.

You will expect to see the type (2) in advanced questions.

- How do I determine the intermediate conclusion?
- Does it support / refute the main conclusion?

- How do I determine the intermediate conclusion?
Actually, the best way to determine the intermediate conclusion is to determine the main conclusion correctly. It seems ridiculous, but it's true. The main conclusion is KEY.

- Does it support / refute the main conclusion?
You can use techniques such as:
* Structure of the argument: If you don't see words such as: although, however, yet, but, nonetheless,....==> You may expect the intermediate conclusion supports the main conclusion.
* Use signal words (therefore, it's generally believed that, however, ......) to determine premise/conclusions.

Hope it helps you.

Regards.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2013, 01:42
skamal7 wrote:
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

OA after some good discussion

Whenever I see a BF question, I analyze the purpose of the BOLD statements. Once I do that, I almost nail it.
Here the two bold statements are:
1)It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C.
2)Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

Now consider the entire stimulus.
The first BF is something sort of common belief, followed by a fact irrelevant to the purpose.
Then a counter idea has been introduced, explicitly made clear by the usage of "however". Based upon this idea, a conclusion has been punched. This is our second BF. This second BF refutes the first BF.

a) first part is fine, but second is not. 2nd BF is not an evidence.
b) first is not a generalization.
c) first is not an evidence,
d) bingo
e) I feel that both the conclusions are balanced, henceforth can't make one conclusion as intermediate and the other as rest. The thing happening here is that the second conclusion is refuting the first conclusion.

Regards,
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2013, 04:10
Alright now most of you rejected A because according to you, the second bold face is not a conclusion. Now, my question is how do you decide if the first bold face is a conclusion. I do not see any conclusion indicators. To me, it merely seems like a claim (it is generally believed.)

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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2013, 07:17
mohnish104 wrote:
Alright now most of you rejected A because according to you, the second bold face is not a conclusion. Now, my question is how do you decide if the first bold face is a conclusion. I do not see any conclusion indicators. To me, it merely seems like a claim (it is generally believed.)

Dear mohnish104,

I did it by POE.

A. The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation. Incorrect. The second is a conclusion and not an evidence as it uses 'therefore' so A is ruled out.

B. The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument. Incorrect. Here the catch is that this option says that first says 'argument accepts as true' whereas the argument rejects it. The author has just stated a commonly held belief. So B is also ruled out.

C. The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument. Incorrect. The first is definitely not an 'evidence'. So C is ruled out as well.

D. The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it. Correct. Makes most sense.

E. The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument. Incorrect. First is not an intermediate conclusion because it is not preceded by any premise. E is ruled out as well.

POE has its own risks, but in questions like these where I can really identify why an option is correct, I do it by POE.

Hope it helps! Kudos if you like

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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2015, 01:52
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pqhai wrote:
The structure of the argument is:

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

It is generally believed that X
However, ………..
Therefore, X is not as correct as it is believed.

==> Clearly, the first is a conclusion that the second (also a conclusion) tries to refute.

Note: in real GMAT questions, when you see quotes like:
- It is generally believed that…..
- Although scientist/people believe that……….
- Some of my critics claim that……..
- ....................

You will expect to see the opposite conclusion.

A) The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
Wrong. Because it starts with “therefore”, the second part is a conclusion, not evidence.

B) The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. SHELL GAME. The first is a generalization that archeaologists believed to be true, not the argument accepts as true. The argument actually refutes the archeaologists’ belief.

C) The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. The first is not an evidence, it’s a conclusion because it starts with “it is generally believed that….”.

D) The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
IMO, Correct. The first is a conclusion that the second tries to refute. The second is the main conclusion of the argument.

E) The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. If the first is an intermediate conclusion, the second is main conclusion. Logically, the first should support the second, but it does not.

Waiting for OA.

I agree that an intermediate conclusion MUST support the Main Conclusion other wise it is not an intermediate conclusion.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2015, 07:43
pqhai wrote:
The structure of the argument is:

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

It is generally believed that X
However, ………..
Therefore, X is not as correct as it is believed.

==> Clearly, the first is a conclusion that the second (also a conclusion) tries to refute.

Note: in real GMAT questions, when you see quotes like:
- It is generally believed that…..
- Although scientist/people believe that……….
- Some of my critics claim that……..
- ....................

You will expect to see the opposite conclusion.

A) The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
Wrong. Because it starts with “therefore”, the second part is a conclusion, not evidence.

B) The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. SHELL GAME. The first is a generalization that archeaologists believed to be true, not the argument accepts as true. The argument actually refutes the archeaologists’ belief.

C) The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. The first is not an evidence, it’s a conclusion because it starts with “it is generally believed that….”.

D) The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
IMO, Correct. The first is a conclusion that the second tries to refute. The second is the main conclusion of the argument.

E) The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. If the first is an intermediate conclusion, the second is main conclusion. Logically, the first should support the second, but it does not.

Waiting for OA.

Hi,
I understood the explanation.
Here is it ok to assume this as conclusion because the stimulus uses "generally believed"?
I have a confusion regarding this.

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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2016, 18:45
skamal7 wrote:
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

OA after some good discussion

the two statements clearly do not agree with each other.
the second is definitely a conclusion. it uses the premise (recently discovered graves - contain same pigments and dated to 4k BC)
the first is a general belief.

1. second is not evidence, it is the conclusion of the argument
2. the argument does not accept first statement as true, it is a general belief, and the argument goes against that belief. the second is indeed the conclusion. because part 1 is not correct, 2 is out.
3. the first one is definitely not evidence and definitely not used to support the conclusion. moreover, the conclusion opposes this statement, and not vice versa.
4. first is conclusion - well...i don't know if it can be named so..second is definitely a conclusion that refutes the first statement..so because of this..hold to this one..
5. first is not an intermediate conclusion and is not accepted as true.

so by POE, D is the best..though i do not accept with the terminology for the first statement.

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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The   [#permalink] 26 Mar 2016, 18:45
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