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# It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from

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VP
Joined: 21 Mar 2006
Posts: 1127
Location: Bangalore
It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2007, 21:26
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It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.

Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?

(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the childrenâ€™s hospital.
(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect.
(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.
(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.
(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate.

Totally lost on this one
SVP
Joined: 08 Nov 2006
Posts: 1554
Location: Ann Arbor
Schools: Ross '10
Re: CR1000 - logical error [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2007, 11:59
1
KUDOS
kripalkavi wrote:
It is illogical to infer a second and different effect from a cause which is known only by one particular effect. This is incorrect because the inferred effect must necessarily be produced by some different characteristic of the cause than is the observed effect, which already serves entirely to describe the cause.

Which one of the following arguments makes the same logical error as the one described by the author in the passage?

(A) An anonymous donor gave a thousand dollars to our historical society. I would guess that that individual also volunteers at the childrenâ€™s hospital.
(B) The radioactive material caused a genetic mutation, which, in turn, caused the birth defect. Therefore, the radioactive material caused the birth defect.
(C) The tiny, unseen atom is the source of immense power. It must be its highly complex structure that produces this power.
(D) The city orchestra received more funds from the local government this year than ever before. Clearly this administration is more civic-minded than previous ones.
(E) If I heat water, which is a liquid, it evaporates. If I heat hundreds of other liquids like water, they evaporate. Therefore, if I heat any liquid like water, it will evaporate.

Totally lost on this one

The argument needs an answer which has 2 different effects attributed to 1 cause. Of all the answer choices, only A meets this criteria.

Choice A

Cause - Anonymous donor
Effect 1 - Donation to historical society
Effect 2 - Volunteers at children's hospital

The only fact we know is that the anonymous donor donated to the historical society. The inference that the donor also volunteers at the children's hospital is illogical.

Choice B is intriguing. Here Cause A effects B and B effects C. The statement implies that Cause A effects C by causing effect B. This reasoning is logical.

I will go with A.
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Joined: 24 Aug 2006
Posts: 745
Location: Dallas, Texas

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30 Jan 2007, 23:35
A !

smells like LSAT question
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VP
Joined: 22 Oct 2006
Posts: 1438
Schools: Chicago Booth '11

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31 Jan 2007, 00:21
definitely a hard one, but I will go with A as well, 2nd statement has no bearing on the cause and effect as the first statement already "serves entirely to describe the cause"
VP
Joined: 21 Mar 2006
Posts: 1127
Location: Bangalore

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31 Jan 2007, 02:56
Swagatalakshmi wrote:
A !

smells like LSAT question

You smelt right. OA is A. Understood

- One cause (donor) leads to an effect (\$1000 to society). Inferring another effect (volunteer at children's hospital) from the same cause (donor) is illogical.

Manager
Joined: 21 Oct 2005
Posts: 93
Re: CR1000 - logical error [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2008, 04:28
A it is
Re: CR1000 - logical error   [#permalink] 16 Jan 2008, 04:28
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