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# It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1

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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2013, 20:58
I picked E and realized why it's wrong. Who cares about strains of bacteria that originated on Earth? I picked this because I was thinking, oh well if the strains on earth died out, the bacteria that is from Mars MAY be comparable...but who cares? The conclusion is saying, so if bacteria DID come from Mars, it probably died out. D is the best choice because maybe the bacteria now IS from Mars...therefore it didn't die out (and we are assuming that the bacteria here is from Earth instead).
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2013, 22:53
still I have conusion with (d) and (e)

Could anyone explain why (d) is wrong
Regards
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2013, 00:31
Practicegmat wrote:
still I have conusion with (d) and (e)

Could anyone explain why (d) is wrong
Regards

Hi Practicegmat.

I think your question is wrong cause D is correct. Probably, your question is "why E is wrong?" if that's true, so this is my explanation.

Conclusion is: if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out because no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets.

What should we attack? We weaken the conclusion by showing that all bacteria on Earth now were transported to Earth from Mars and NOT died out later.

But (E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

E does not attack the conclusion at all. There would be the case that some bacteria originated on Earth died out later and bacteria transported from Mars to Earth also died out.

Hence E is incorrect.

Hope it helps.
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2013, 23:15
chunjuwu wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Note: There are two questions available with the similar stimulus and same first line but different question. The other question (complete the passage) is discussed in: it-is-theoretically-possible-that-bacteria-developed-on-q2-46449.html

Whats wrong with D and E...

Can someone explain...?
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2013, 00:07
1
jaituteja wrote:
chunjuwu wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Note: There are two questions available with the similar stimulus and same first line but different question. The other question (complete the passage) is discussed in: it-is-theoretically-possible-that-bacteria-developed-on-q2-46449.html

Whats wrong with D and E...

Can someone explain...?

Hi jaituteja

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

Fact: strains of bacteria from different planets  have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time.
Fact: NO two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets
Conclusion: if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

Assumption: There is NOT ANY CASE that all bacterial strains on Earth came from Mars. Because if All bacterial on Earth originated from Mars ==> we CANNOT compare bacteria from Mars with bacteria on Earth to make conclusion, because they are the same.

D and E, which one is correct?

(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
Correct. It attacks the conclusion by demonstrating the case that all bacterial strains on Earth actually traveled to Earth from Mars. we CANNOT compare bacteria from Mars with bacteria on Earth, because they are the same.

(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.
Wrong. E does not weaken the point “all bacteria arrived on Earth from Mars must have died out” at all. Don’t go too FAR. You CANNOT assume that “strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out” = all bacteria living on Earth arrived from Mars. Because there would be the case that some bacteria originated form Earth died out later, but others still alive. Therefore, the conclusion based on the comparison MAY BE valid ==> You cannot weaken the conclusion by using E. That's why E differs from D.

Hope it helps.
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2014, 07:59
jaituteja wrote:
chunjuwu wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Note: There are two questions available with the similar stimulus and same first line but different question. The other question (complete the passage) is discussed in: it-is-theoretically-possible-that-bacteria-developed-on-q2-46449.html

Whats wrong with D and E...

Can someone explain...?
This is one of the most twister questions I have seen on GMAT. But not because of logic but sentence construction. I would have been scratching for long in understanding the meaning. Lets deconstruct.

Fact 1: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite.

Fact 2: However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and
Not of much significance

Fact3: no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets.
It looked like an SC question to me for first 20 times I looked at it. But, guess GMAT is all about persistence
Let us first remove this "no" from beginning to understand the meaning: "two bacterial strains on Earth are different"
Now place "not" after "are": "two bacterial strains on Earth are not different"

So, this sentence basically says that bacterial strains on earth are so same that they must be of only one origin.

Conclusion: So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.
Bacteria from Mars, if on earth, must have died out.

Summary: We can have only one source for all bacteria on earth. So all bacteria from Mars, if reached earth, would have died out on earth.

What will weaken this? Bacteria from Mars didn't die.
D says exactly that.

E says that earth bacteria died out. It is extra information but doesnt deal with Martian bacteria(which is part of conclusion)

Correct me if this line of thinking looks wrong..
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2015, 00:30
chunjuwu wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Note: There are two questions available with the similar stimulus and same first line but different question. The other question (complete the passage) is discussed in: it-is-theoretically-possible-that-bacteria-developed-on-q2-46449.html

B/w D and E, its D.

In option E, there is no point that involves Martian bacteria, as the argument is talking about it in detail and it is expected to somehow be presented in the ans.
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2017, 01:11
can anybody know which standard flaw it is ,I mean name of the flaw in general . As per me I think it irrelevant premise flaw,but I am not sure about it .
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2017, 01:32
rrnjn145 wrote:
can anybody know which standard flaw it is ,I mean name of the flaw in general . As per me I think it irrelevant premise flaw,but I am not sure about it .

Hi rrnjn145 ,

Premises are NEVER irrelevant.

As far as this question is concerned, we can say the argument is missing a broader scope. i.e. It is missing a possibility that could weaken the conclusion.

Does that make sense?
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2017, 13:13
abhimahna wrote:
rrnjn145 wrote:
can anybody know which standard flaw it is ,I mean name of the flaw in general . As per me I think it irrelevant premise flaw,but I am not sure about it .

Hi rrnjn145 ,

Premises are NEVER irrelevant.

As far as this question is concerned, we can say the argument is missing a broader scope. i.e. It is missing a possibility that could weaken the conclusion.

Does that make sense?

Thanks abhimahna for the response! The following post might also help: https://gmatclub.com/forum/it-is-theore ... l#p1241908
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2018, 09:28
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2018, 00:47
Bunuel,

Can this be tagged to Flaw Question Type

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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2018, 00:51
Probus wrote:
Bunuel,

Can this be tagged to Flaw Question Type

Probus

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Done. Thank you.
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2018, 18:31
Quote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

Conclusion :- Even if bacteria originated from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument makes above conclusion on the basis that strains of bacteria from different planets would have substantial differences in protein structure and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

Quote:
(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars

Note:- In final conclusion argument agrees that bacteria may have arrived on Earth from Mars. We are not talking about whether it was developed or not on Mars.
Irrelevant

Quote:
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth

Note:- In final conclusion argument agrees that bacteria may have arrived on Earth from Mars.So this option is not the contention here.
Out of Scope.

Quote:
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.

We are not considering by what means bacteria were transported to earth.Irrelevant

Quote:
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.

This may weaken the conclusion. All bacteria that now are there on earth may be transported from Mars. They are of same protein structure. Hence the author conclusion will be weakened. Bingo

Quote:
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

So some bacteria originated on Earth and later died out. We are still not getting as to why Mars bacteria died out even if they were successful in reaching earth. Does this option gives us the reason to weaken the conclusion above.? NO
Therefore we can cross it out as well.

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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2019, 17:57
hi ,
can anyone help clarify "no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. " ?

it is hard for me to understand.

Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1 &nbs [#permalink] 04 Jan 2019, 17:57

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