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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2003, 21:02
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

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30 Oct 2009, 23:50
kairoshan wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Realized that Japan cannot be a culture - so changed to D from A:

(A) is incorrect and wrong meaning as "Japan" cannot be '"a culture of accommodation and constraint".
(B) is incorrect and wrong meaning as "Japan" cannot be '"a culture of accommodation and constraint".
also "which" refers to "images", which is plural and the verb of plural "which" should be "make" not "makes".
(C) Too wired???????

(D) is correct as "Japan's" can be a culture of accommodation and constraint. The sentence reads as:
“Japan’s is a culture of accommodation and constraints, a system (of forms and etiquettes) that makes the everpresent congestion tolerable”.

(E) "Japan's" cannot be a culture of accommodation and constraint.
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31 Oct 2009, 00:50
kairoshan wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

I think D is the correct answer.
Japan is not a culture. Its Japan's culture.
A has a problem with 'its'. Does the congestion refers to system of form, etiquette... or Japan itself or the culture?
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31 Oct 2009, 02:32
speeddeamon wrote:
kairoshan wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

I think D is the correct answer.
Japan is not a culture. Its Japan's culture.
A has a problem with 'its'. Does the congestion refers to system of form, etiquette... or Japan itself or the culture?

What is the subject in "D"?? etiquette, and images that makes---- clear subject verb error
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31 Oct 2009, 02:35
gmattokyo wrote:
kairoshan wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Can't resist replying to a Q on Japan

IMO (D)

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
<--"its" predecessor is not clear"
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its <--same as (A)
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
<--Japan is not a culture. It should be Japan's culture
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the <--a culture of <>, a system of <> parallel form
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the <--a culture of a system of forms... sounds awkward and seems like changing the meaning of original

an edit on (A) reason

Don't u think "D" has subject verb agreement issue?
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31 Oct 2009, 02:51
you guyz have me confused, but I'll still stick with D.

To elaborate further:
if you are referring to etiquette, I think it can be used both as singular and plural.
The subject is culture, IMO

Japan's (culture -implicit) is a culture of <...>, a system of <..> (elaborates previous statement on culture) that makes
culture/system singular, followed by makes which is proper.
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31 Oct 2009, 03:06
D for me.

IMO the explanation should be as follows:

Japan's (that is japans culture) is:

1) a culture of accommodation and constraint,
2) a system of forms, etiquette and images (here we are not talking about this point as a separate entity but rather to aid in describing the above point and thereby japans culture - this would explain the use of a comma rather than 'and')

which makes (because we are referring to 'culture' which is singular) the ever-present congestion tolerable.

Hope this helps!

Let me know what you guys think.
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27 Nov 2009, 12:12
it's a weird qs...what is the source of this qs??
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28 Nov 2009, 12:43
Yes, I would have to agree. This is a very odd question.
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30 Nov 2009, 13:28
I think D. This is a vile question indeed.
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30 Dec 2009, 12:23
wow!!
I see mistakes in all the options. Can't say which one is more acceptable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its - wrong comparison
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its - This one first says Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint and then it says Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images and goes on to modify images which should not be the case
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its - again says Japan is a system... and images is being modified here
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the - Not parallel and modifies imagess
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the - of a system of forms is weird and again "images" is being modified here (even if there was a comma correctly put).

Am i missing something here?
Can anyone explain
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2010, 03:18
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

A. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
B. Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
C. A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
D. Japan’s is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
E. Japan’s is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes the
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03 Jul 2010, 03:33
Between D & E.

Original sentence has modifier issue, 'making' points to japan instead of culture.

Sarai can you please explain the usage of 'that' and 'which' here
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03 Jul 2010, 04:05
how japan's is a==> is right?
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03 Jul 2010, 04:29
IMO : D

Only D and E have the correct comparison. But "which" has problem in E.
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03 Jul 2010, 07:05
gurpreetsingh wrote:
how japan's is a==> is right?

Japan’s [culture] is a culture of..

Thats the ellipses we have here
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03 Jul 2010, 07:38
Choice between D and E. E breaks parallelism because of second "of".

Hence, D.
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03 Dec 2010, 02:01
Some may hesitate over whether to D or not, as I did, because that is followed by a singular form of verb, makes, and thereby they may claim D should be rules out. But a more careful look clears that "that" is modifying "a system". correct me if I'm wrong
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03 Dec 2010, 05:59
The first test here is whether what the relative pronoun ‘which’ or ‘that’ stands for. If it is argued that it stands for the noun ‘images’, then this structure runs into a serious problem of S-V disagreement – ‘images’ which or that ‘makes’. Otherwise, we have to labor to argue that it stands for the distant 'a system' or 'a culture'. This is untenable; so in my opinion, we have to drop B, D and E and go for A, or C which avoids the mismodification by using a present participle that modifies the entire noun phrase or phrases lying before it.

Second task is whether we can accept a country as a culture. I think it is acceptable metaphorically.

But between A and C, A has a subtle problem, Japan is a culture and a system as per the text. I think these two should have been conjugated by a conjunction ‘and’.

C - On the contrary, some feel that it is awkward to start a sentence with an absolute modifier such as in choice C. But I feel that there are so many instances where this type of form has been passed by GMAT. In an OG example given below, the answer choice is C which is using the absolute modifiers as starters of sentences.

Quote:
Architects and stonemasons, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport.

(A) huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport
(B) without the benefits of animal transport or the wheel, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya
(C) the Maya built huge palace and temple clusters without the benefit of animal transport or the wheel
(D) there were built, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, huge palace and temple clusters by the Maya
(E) were the Maya who, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, built huge palace and temple clusters
Here Architects and Stonemsosns stand for the May, a tribe

I feel that C makes the strongest case as the answer IMO. Any takers?
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03 Dec 2010, 09:43
D, as someone said Japan's culture is discussed
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03 Dec 2010, 10:35
+1 D

Japan is a country which has a culture.
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