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# Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system

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Senior Manager
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2003, 21:02
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

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21 Feb 2009, 22:03
baggio wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.
A.Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
B.Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
C.A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
D.Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
E.Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Tks for ur help/.

Japan is not a culture..
Japan is a country..

Clearly A,B,C are out.

We can say
Japan has a culture..
Japan has a system of X,Y and Z

between D and E

Japan's is a culture of A and C, a system of X,Y and Z

in D "makes" modify " a system"

E --> of a system is incorrect.

D is the best.
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22 Feb 2009, 04:12
I still have a doubt to choose b/w D & E.
Can anybody plz explain the following:

D.Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
Why and????
We could have written it like this.
--- Japan's is a culture of accommodation,constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

E.Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
--- Whereas this seems me to be correct construction.Even if i remove 'of accommodation and constraint',i can still make a sentence.
--- Japan's is a culture-----------------------------, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
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30 Oct 2009, 20:39
kairoshan wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Can't resist replying to a Q on Japan

IMO (D)

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
<--"its" predecessor is not clear"
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its <--same as (A)
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
<--Japan is not a culture. It should be Japan's culture
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the <--a culture of <>, a system of <> parallel form
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the <--a culture of a system of forms... sounds awkward and seems like changing the meaning of original

an edit on (A) reason
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30 Oct 2009, 23:50
kairoshan wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Realized that Japan cannot be a culture - so changed to D from A:

(A) is incorrect and wrong meaning as "Japan" cannot be '"a culture of accommodation and constraint".
(B) is incorrect and wrong meaning as "Japan" cannot be '"a culture of accommodation and constraint".
also "which" refers to "images", which is plural and the verb of plural "which" should be "make" not "makes".
(C) Too wired???????

(D) is correct as "Japan's" can be a culture of accommodation and constraint. The sentence reads as:
“Japan’s is a culture of accommodation and constraints, a system (of forms and etiquettes) that makes the everpresent congestion tolerable”.

(E) "Japan's" cannot be a culture of accommodation and constraint.
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31 Oct 2009, 02:51
you guyz have me confused, but I'll still stick with D.

To elaborate further:
if you are referring to etiquette, I think it can be used both as singular and plural.
The subject is culture, IMO

Japan's (culture -implicit) is a culture of <...>, a system of <..> (elaborates previous statement on culture) that makes
culture/system singular, followed by makes which is proper.
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31 Oct 2009, 03:06
D for me.

IMO the explanation should be as follows:

Japan's (that is japans culture) is:

1) a culture of accommodation and constraint,
2) a system of forms, etiquette and images (here we are not talking about this point as a separate entity but rather to aid in describing the above point and thereby japans culture - this would explain the use of a comma rather than 'and')

which makes (because we are referring to 'culture' which is singular) the ever-present congestion tolerable.

Hope this helps!

Let me know what you guys think.
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30 Dec 2009, 12:23
wow!!
I see mistakes in all the options. Can't say which one is more acceptable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its - wrong comparison
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its - This one first says Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint and then it says Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images and goes on to modify images which should not be the case
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its - again says Japan is a system... and images is being modified here
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the - Not parallel and modifies imagess
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the - of a system of forms is weird and again "images" is being modified here (even if there was a comma correctly put).

Am i missing something here?
Can anyone explain
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03 Dec 2010, 05:59
The first test here is whether what the relative pronoun ‘which’ or ‘that’ stands for. If it is argued that it stands for the noun ‘images’, then this structure runs into a serious problem of S-V disagreement – ‘images’ which or that ‘makes’. Otherwise, we have to labor to argue that it stands for the distant 'a system' or 'a culture'. This is untenable; so in my opinion, we have to drop B, D and E and go for A, or C which avoids the mismodification by using a present participle that modifies the entire noun phrase or phrases lying before it.

Second task is whether we can accept a country as a culture. I think it is acceptable metaphorically.

But between A and C, A has a subtle problem, Japan is a culture and a system as per the text. I think these two should have been conjugated by a conjunction ‘and’.

C - On the contrary, some feel that it is awkward to start a sentence with an absolute modifier such as in choice C. But I feel that there are so many instances where this type of form has been passed by GMAT. In an OG example given below, the answer choice is C which is using the absolute modifiers as starters of sentences.

Quote:
Architects and stonemasons, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport.

(A) huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport
(B) without the benefits of animal transport or the wheel, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya
(C) the Maya built huge palace and temple clusters without the benefit of animal transport or the wheel
(D) there were built, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, huge palace and temple clusters by the Maya
(E) were the Maya who, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, built huge palace and temple clusters
Here Architects and Stonemsosns stand for the May, a tribe

I feel that C makes the strongest case as the answer IMO. Any takers?
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17 Feb 2011, 08:38
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I find an important custom of English usage sadly missed by many.

What do you think of the following statements?

Franklin Rooswelt was a ‘giant’ of a President.
Mahatma Gandhi was a ‘lion’ of a statesman.
He is a ‘horse’ when he drinks
It is raining ‘cats and dogs’.

These are metaphors used to stress some point and are perfectly licit. We should not think of a country only in terms of geography or geology. A country is much more than that. So let us not mistake that this text suffers from weirdness. That said, let us delve into the choices now.

A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ------
‘IMO, A is a perfect choice with proper participial modification that modifies the entire noun idea running before it and with proper punctuation.’

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ----- Which makes’ flouts relative pronoun touch- rule.
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its ……. The sentence alters the meaning that only images are making its ever-present congestion tolerable.
D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images’ that makes ….. ‘That’ modifies images and flouts touch rule.

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
‘and images which makes the ‘Which’ is not preceded by a comma and hence the sentence is ungrammatical,

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27 Feb 2011, 11:22
(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

A)Japan is a culture is incorrect grammar
B)Japan, a culture - well, japan is not a culture.
C)Same mistake - japan is not a culture.
D) Japan's culture is a culture - correct usage, but culture would have been redundant - so correct usage. Secondly 'that' correctly modifies culture
E) which incorrectly modifies culture

So the correct answer IMO is D

If you like my explainations, please do not forget the kudos .....Thanx !!!
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2012, 01:33
The OG refers to D , however i am not aware of the actual source for this question, and i guess D is possible only if we are to strictly consider JAPAN as a COUNTRY. Would love to whether the GMAT plays around with LARGER MEANINGS of words such as that of JAPAN being referred to a culture rather than purely as a nation.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2012, 08:03
Thing to not here "that" and "which" maintains the touch rule. But not 100% of the time.
I sent the letter to my dad which contained the information.
This is a completely gmat-relevant sentence.
Also see that in D "makes" makes it clear that the subject of "makes" is not images but system (similar to the above sentence in which "letter" is the subject to the verb "contained".
D is the winner
Might not be a clear winner tho.

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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2012, 10:29
Daagh has given nice explanation
in respect to modifier.
i used same rule of modifier and went with A
But somewhat still confuse with intend meaning of full sentence
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Last edited by Aristocrat on 31 Oct 2012, 10:30, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2012, 10:30
Yepp
not official as far as i can tell.
But even if it was, the gmat acts crazy often, so you can be on the lookout. And as we all know there are a couple of experimental questions which could throw you off (they dont contribute to the score but bring down your confidence about the test).
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2013, 11:52
Okay here my approach:

Japan is not a culture, it is a country -> eliminate AB

C makes no sense -> eliminate

In E "of a system of forms" sounds akward and makes no sense because of the comma and is also not parallel to the other numberings. Further there is no other answer with this structure. -> eliminate

D is correct because the structure is parallel and it is not refeering to the country but the culture.

Is this a proper explanation or was it just a lucky guess?
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 05:12
Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

One of my friend inform me that we have to use AND to combine 2 statements instead of ,(coma). Is it true?

a culture of... and a system of forms.... are 2 statements which refer Japan's. So do we have to use AND between them?
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2014, 13:19

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

Meaning: Japan's culture is a culture of accommodation and constraint.........

Sentence Structure: A Full independent clause, Absolute phrase modifier (a system( of something) that makes the....)

Absolute modifier: Noun+ Noun modifier , modifies the entire preceding clause.

Noun= a system,
Noun modifier= relative clause starting with relative pronoun "that" modifies the preceding noun " a system".
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2014, 11:25
Can someone here make me understand why we can't eliminate D and E by looking at the end of the sentence?

...makes the ever-..."

I was thinking that they can be ruled out since they are talking about "ever-present congestion" in general but doesn't talk in particularly about "Japan's ever-present congestion".

Shouldn't there be a possessiveness about it?
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2016, 07:02
beckee529 wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Since people are having doubt between D and E, let me clarify that :

Other than that/which

a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

D)
It says
Japan's is
1) a culture of accommodation and constraint
2) a system of forms, etiquette, and images

E)

It says :

Japan's is a :
1) a culture of accommodation and constraint
2) culture of a system of forms, etiquette, and images

We want to say Japan's system is a system of forms, etiquette and images
How can a culture match up with a system?

Hence D

Other than that, which can only refer to a single noun!!!! so which noun do we match up here?
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2016, 03:45
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ---That is required as an essential modifier.If we drop the clause following "that" then the sentence does not make sense.And also that here refers to "a system" and NOT "forms, etiquette, and images".So "makes" is correct. --Correct

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the --which incorrectly modifies "forms, etiquette, and images" and also it should "make" and not "makes".
Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2016, 03:45

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