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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2003, 21:02
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A
B
C
D
E

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Please don't be stingy with your explanations!!!
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New post 15 Sep 2003, 02:50
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MartinMag wrote:
Oops! Sorry about that! Answer is D and not E

Could you explain a little further? Why is E wrong?
Is "that" better than "which" ?

Thanks and sorry again

Martin


In D, The clause starting with "that" is a RESTRICTIVE clause...how do i know that?

Remove the "that" clause..we are left with a run on sentence.

With Restrictive Clauses, ALWAYS use THAT.

NOTE:
Its true that both "that" and "which" can be used to start restrictive clauses...but "that" is always preferred.

So we zoom in to D..[/b]

Another reason for rejecting E...

Japan's is a culture of X, of a system of forms...this structure is not quite correct...

Culture and System are two different things.. isnt it?

Culture of a System of.......isnt that messed up?

correct version can be:

Japan's is a culture of X and a system of Y that makes its Z


ok, now to answer in general about that and which

That starts a restrictive clause providing essential information.. no commas ever for "that"

The book, which is on the table, is mine...wrong

If we remove the red part, you will ask...which book....isnt it?

We need more information...

The book that is on the table is mine...correct

The sentence in blue is thus integral to the sentence.

Here we have complete information about the book...so this is fine
So if you get rid of a "which" clause ...it "should not" change the meaning of the sentence..if it does, then your sentence construction is wrong.....the Which clause is usually set of from the sentence by commas...

Be advised..there may be cases where ETS will introduce the same error in ALL the choices...in that case, dont lose sight of the fact that you got to pick the BEST answer....for example , you may have five choices...all of these have no comma before which...in that case..you can be sure that the rule " no comma before which" is not tested here.

Is that good enough?

Thanks
Praetorian

Last edited by Praetorian on 15 Sep 2003, 07:31, edited 2 times in total.

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New post 06 Jun 2006, 22:05
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It's between B and D.
I would go with B.

Ok let's take D first:

Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable.

We may think "Japan's is" as "Culture of Japan" and can rewrite the sentence as
"Culture of Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable."

However, a culture can not be a system.
Moreover "ever-present congestion" is not clear. It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say congestion is present everywhere in Japan.

So D is out.


In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

So IMO B should be the answer.

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New post 07 Jun 2006, 20:34
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Going against the gang. I will go with E.

A, B and C can be eliminated easliy for wrong comparison between Japan and culture.

Now the tough choice is between D and E but I think E wins. Why? Let me try:

D) Japan's is
a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images
that makes the

Carefully look at the ||ism. This doesn't make sense. In the first we are saying "Japan's is a culture of......" and in second we are saying "a system of......"

(E) Japan's is a culture
of accommodation and constraint,
of a system of forms, etiquette, and images
which makes the

Here ||ism is there. Subject here is "culture" not the Japan and "which" is clearly referring to culture. We don't need comma.
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New post 08 Jun 2006, 04:16
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OA is ^ D ^


Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.

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New post 08 Jun 2006, 21:19
selene wrote:
ps_dahiya wrote:
selene wrote:
OA is ^ D ^


Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.


I don't believe this. Must be E. Here is the discussion and explanation given by SC guru Paul

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=8422



This question was discussed on the forum before. It is a complicated one, that's why I posted it here. The OA is D.


Selene,

I went through the links provided by you.
However I have a doubt which I had earlier.

Don't you think in D "ever-present congestion" is not clear??
It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say "congestion is present everywhere in Japan."

In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

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New post 09 Jun 2006, 05:20
b14kumar wrote:
selene wrote:
ps_dahiya wrote:
selene wrote:
OA is ^ D ^


Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.


I don't believe this. Must be E. Here is the discussion and explanation given by SC guru Paul

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=8422



This question was discussed on the forum before. It is a complicated one, that's why I posted it here. The OA is D.


Selene,

I went through the links provided by you.
However I have a doubt which I had earlier.

Don't you think in D "ever-present congestion" is not clear??
It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say "congestion is present everywhere in Japan."

In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

Regards,
Brajesh



The OA for this interesting question is given as ^ D ^, as I provided in the links. There is not an OE I have. However, the main point in this question is finding the right subject. Is it Japan or the culture of Japan??

>> As the sentence goes on like "... a culture of accomodation ..." we can understand that we should talk about Japanese culture not Japan itself. Culture of Japan is ok, Japan's is ok, Japanese is ok, but I don't think we can use Japan as the subject. It cannot be a culture.

>>Just like I have told in my previous post, this way we are left with E and D. An D is better than E.

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Re: SC - ever-present congestion [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2006, 10:35
selene wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the


good question selen. :king

IMO too it should be D. however D and E donot have any significant difference but a very minor i.e a coma (,).

because in general a coma (,) is required before "which" where the same is not necessary before "that". in the above question, there is no coma. therefore D make sense.

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New post 22 Aug 2006, 05:06
Hummm.

I eliminated on the first glance D and E and hesitated b/w B and C.

For me D was out because it seems wordy and says "J's culture is a culture of accomodation, a system of forms that make ....

This sentence raises few interrogations:
- I have the feeling something is missing such as an AND=>culture is a culture AND a system.
Or are we allowed sometimes to ignore the linking element?
Ex : My car is red,big OR My car is red and big?

- U2 said Japan is not a system. Can culture be a system?

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Re: JAPAN [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2006, 08:51
It's D

Japan is a country/nation not a culture, therefore A is out; B is out japan isn't a system; C is out, Japan isn'y a culture (this time in pre-position).

E is out because of "of" that doesn't reate to anything. In D system is an acceptable apposition to culture (culture is a system of forms) and rthe absolute possessive case is OK "Japan's is" cf "Hers were the toil and suffering...."

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system
of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system
of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system
of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the



Please don't be stingy with your explanations!!![/quote]
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Re: SC japan [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2007, 05:37
beckee529 wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

please explain your choice. i already know the answer.. thanks :)


I pick D.

We need to say 'Japan's culture is a culture of ....' since Japan itself is a country not a culture. Eliminate A, B and C.

B/w D & E, the use of 'which' is not correct in E (since there is no comma before it). Also, I'm not sure if 'of' is correct before 'a system'. Eliminate E.

What's the OA?

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Re: SC japan [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2007, 07:26
beckee529 wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

please explain your choice. i already know the answer.. thanks :)



I will take E here

E is of the structure

Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the


D is of the structure

Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

in this construction I feel "that" doesnt have an antecedent.

Surely between D and E though

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Re: SC_brutal [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2008, 08:50
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
[ its has no clear referent. Is it refering to Japan, System ? ]
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
[ its unclear ;
which is refering to images, it is wrong it should correctly point "system" ]

(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
[ Againg the images is "making" , not the system !!! ]
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
[ that is refering to system , hence the meaning of the sentence is clear ]
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
[ Againg the images "makes" , not the system !!! ]

Answer D.

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Re: Brutal SC-34 [#permalink]

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marshpa wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.
(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

OA is D but my question is whats wrong with C and how D can be OA...Japan's is a culture, is this idiomatic expression? Folks please help me with this..


A,B,C
Says.. Japan is a Culture.. So.. they are gone.

between D and E.. (They may not be best but better than other 3 options)

In D, I think verb "IS" placed in the midlle of the subject "Janpan's Culture"

I can rewrite the setence like below

Japan's culture of accommodation and constraint IS a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the


E is out.."of systems of forms" --> awkward.
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Re: Brutal SC-34 [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2008, 01:29
(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
-- Japan is not a culture.

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
-- Japan is not a culture.

(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
-- Japan is not a culture.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
>> Correct, even though I am unclear whether it is a correct sentence structure

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
-- "makes" should be plural.

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Re: SC [#permalink]

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jitendra wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Getting no clue about right one. pls help


A, B and C tells us that Japan is a culture which is incorrect. (Japan is a country).
D and E states- Japan's is a culture which means, Japan has a culture which is characterized by (accomodation and contraint- use proper form).
Between (D) and (E), (D) is parallel.
In (E), "of a system of forms, etiquette" breaks teh parallelism.
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Re: SC -japan [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2009, 23:15
x2suresh wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquetteand images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the


Seems D is least bothered one but do not see this structure is a correct one. "Japan's is a culture ......." in D and E meant waht? What is Japan's?

"Japan is a culture .............." in A is not correct.
B also says that japan is a culture - wrong.
C is also similar to B.
D says "Japan's is a culture ........." ok. keep it.
E is not parallel. Japan's is a ...... of x, of y, z and w.
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Re: SC -japan [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2009, 02:49
A

Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquetteand images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its (seems the right answer)
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ("which" refers to "system", how about "culture?)
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its ("making" modifies "images", wrong)
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the (same as B)
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the ("which" without a "," ahead is wrong)

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Re: SC: Japan [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2009, 09:48
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the


My Explanation:
---------------
A) Country Japan is not a culture; a country has a culture so we can discard this option.
B) This option again is referring to Japan as a culture of accommodation and constraint, which is wrong.
C) Same reason as that for option A & B.
D) The word Japan's in this context refers to Japan's culture.
E) I could find two errors here:
---> 1.) 'of a system of forms' is a wrong usage.
---> 2.) Though not as important as reason 1.), the word 'which' should be preceded by a comma.
---------------

IMHO, the answer is option D.

HTH.
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Re: SC_baggio(9) [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2009, 21:29
baggio wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.
A.Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
B.Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
C.A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
D.Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
E.Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Tks for ur help/.


In A, the word and is missing. It would sound right if the sentence is Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, and a system of forms ,etiquette, and images, making its
B is wrong because the use of which. The which here modifies images. It is not the image makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.
D and E Japan's is wrong and the use of that and which is also wrong.

I guess I am going to go with C, although I kind of like the comma between images and making to be there.

Kudos [?]: 270 [0], given: 1

Re: SC_baggio(9)   [#permalink] 21 Feb 2009, 21:29

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