Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2003, 20:02
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Question Stats:

36% (02:10) correct 64% (01:14) wrong based on 1900 sessions

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Please don't be stingy with your explanations!!!
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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15 Sep 2003, 01:50
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MartinMag wrote:
Oops! Sorry about that! Answer is D and not E

Could you explain a little further? Why is E wrong?
Is "that" better than "which" ?

Thanks and sorry again

Martin

In D, The clause starting with "that" is a RESTRICTIVE clause...how do i know that?

Remove the "that" clause..we are left with a run on sentence.

With Restrictive Clauses, ALWAYS use THAT.

NOTE:
Its true that both "that" and "which" can be used to start restrictive clauses...but "that" is always preferred.

So we zoom in to D..[/b]

Another reason for rejecting E...

Japan's is a culture of X, of a system of forms...this structure is not quite correct...

Culture and System are two different things.. isnt it?

Culture of a System of.......isnt that messed up?

correct version can be:

Japan's is a culture of X and a system of Y that makes its Z

ok, now to answer in general about that and which

That starts a restrictive clause providing essential information.. no commas ever for "that"

The book, which is on the table, is mine...wrong

If we remove the red part, you will ask...which book....isnt it?

The book that is on the table is mine...correct

The sentence in blue is thus integral to the sentence.

Here we have complete information about the book...so this is fine
So if you get rid of a "which" clause ...it "should not" change the meaning of the sentence..if it does, then your sentence construction is wrong.....the Which clause is usually set of from the sentence by commas...

Be advised..there may be cases where ETS will introduce the same error in ALL the choices...in that case, dont lose sight of the fact that you got to pick the BEST answer....for example , you may have five choices...all of these have no comma before which...in that case..you can be sure that the rule " no comma before which" is not tested here.

Is that good enough?

Thanks
Praetorian

Last edited by Praetorian on 15 Sep 2003, 06:31, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: SC: Japan [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2011, 07:38
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I find an important custom of English usage sadly missed by many.

What do you think of the following statements?

Franklin Rooswelt was a ‘giant’ of a President.
Mahatma Gandhi was a ‘lion’ of a statesman.
He is a ‘horse’ when he drinks
It is raining ‘cats and dogs’.

These are metaphors used to stress some point and are perfectly licit. We should not think of a country only in terms of geography or geology. A country is much more than that. So let us not mistake that this text suffers from weirdness. That said, let us delve into the choices now.

A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ------
‘IMO, A is a perfect choice with proper participial modification that modifies the entire noun idea running before it and with proper punctuation.’

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ----- Which makes’ flouts relative pronoun touch- rule.
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its ……. The sentence alters the meaning that only images are making its ever-present congestion tolerable.
D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images’ that makes ….. ‘That’ modifies images and flouts touch rule.

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
‘and images which makes the ‘Which’ is not preceded by a comma and hence the sentence is ungrammatical,

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06 Jun 2006, 21:05
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It's between B and D.
I would go with B.

Ok let's take D first:

Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable.

We may think "Japan's is" as "Culture of Japan" and can rewrite the sentence as
"Culture of Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable."

However, a culture can not be a system.
Moreover "ever-present congestion" is not clear. It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say congestion is present everywhere in Japan.

So D is out.

In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

So IMO B should be the answer.

Regards,
Brajesh
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07 Jun 2006, 19:34
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Going against the gang. I will go with E.

A, B and C can be eliminated easliy for wrong comparison between Japan and culture.

Now the tough choice is between D and E but I think E wins. Why? Let me try:

D) Japan's is
a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images
that makes the

Carefully look at the ||ism. This doesn't make sense. In the first we are saying "Japan's is a culture of......" and in second we are saying "a system of......"

(E) Japan's is a culture
of accommodation and constraint,
of a system of forms, etiquette, and images
which makes the

Here ||ism is there. Subject here is "culture" not the Japan and "which" is clearly referring to culture. We don't need comma.
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08 Jun 2006, 03:16
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OA is ^ D ^

Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.
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08 Jun 2006, 21:37
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u2lover wrote:
ps_dahiya wrote:
u2lover wrote:
hm... I might agree with comparison of culture and system, but I don't quite get how a possessive "Japan's" can be a subject, or is it?

interesting... did the question come from the OG?

I think "culture" is not explicitly stated here.

Japan's culture is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

hey ps_dahiya, thanks for answering my crazy questions when others ignore it... after visiting this forum for a while I realized that my SC hit rate drastically dropped for some reason... it used to be my strength... I guess the more I think about the question, the more mistakes I make... hope it will go up one day

Hey u2lover,

Your question was already answered in one of my posts.

b14kumar wrote:

It's between B and D.
I would go with B.

Ok let's take D first:

Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable.

We may think "Japan's is" as "Culture of Japan" and can rewrite the sentence as

"Culture of Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable."

However, a culture can not be a system.
Moreover "ever-present congestion" is not clear. It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say congestion is present everywhere in Japan.

So D is out.

In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

So IMO B should be the answer.

Regards,
Brajesh

And hey, your hit rate will definitely go up.
I am also expecting same for me.
We need to practice more and more.....
All the best!!

Regards,
Brajesh
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Re: Brutal SC-34 [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2008, 22:01
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marshpa wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.
(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

OA is D but my question is whats wrong with C and how D can be OA...Japan's is a culture, is this idiomatic expression? Folks please help me with this..

A,B,C
Says.. Japan is a Culture.. So.. they are gone.

between D and E.. (They may not be best but better than other 3 options)

In D, I think verb "IS" placed in the midlle of the subject "Janpan's Culture"

I can rewrite the setence like below

Japan's culture of accommodation and constraint IS a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

E is out.."of systems of forms" --> awkward.
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07 Oct 2008, 12:44
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jitendra wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Getting no clue about right one. pls help

A, B and C tells us that Japan is a culture which is incorrect. (Japan is a country).
D and E states- Japan's is a culture which means, Japan has a culture which is characterized by (accomodation and contraint- use proper form).
Between (D) and (E), (D) is parallel.
In (E), "of a system of forms, etiquette" breaks teh parallelism.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2013, 10:59
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targetgmatchotu wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

After checking OA for this question now I have doubt for the OA given for Brutal SC's

Source : brutal SC

Can we have discussion on this !!

Whether the question is of 1000 series of Brutal series, the first step is to understand the meaning of the process. Upon understanding the meaning, one can easily deduce the correct answer.
Here A, B and C are incorrect in that they have modification issue. Is Japan a culture? Its incorrect because Japan is a country.
This modifier issue has been resolved in D and E. However, E implies that "something" of Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a culture of system of forms, etiquette bla bla bla. Illogical and hence incorrect.
D is the winner here, without any doubt.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2013, 03:44
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Paris75 wrote:
So when you have "Japan's is a culture" it means the culture of Japan?

So if I say "Maryse's is a book from WalMart" it is correct?

Thx for replies

This is a brutal SC question ,a source full of typos and non-gmat like questions.
Pls. do not depend on the grammatical construction given in the options here.

Thnks
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2013, 05:13
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dentobizz wrote:
Paris75 wrote:
So when you have "Japan's is a culture" it means the culture of Japan?

So if I say "Maryse's is a book from WalMart" it is correct?

Thx for replies

This is a brutal SC question ,a source full of typos and non-gmat like questions.
Pls. do not depend on the grammatical construction given in the options here.

Thnks

Thank you for this answer! I was so pissed off with this one! English is not my mother tongue and here I just felt.. lost...

Thx for the reply!
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13 Sep 2003, 21:47
MartinMag wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its

ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system
of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system
of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system
of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Please don't be stingy with your explanations!!!

E is convoluted...
Japan's is a culture of X , of a system of Y which makes...
Also "which" has no clear logical referent

C ,B and A.... Japan ""has"" a culture/system....and Japan "is" a country!
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14 Sep 2003, 07:22
Barely missed

Probably because of the parallelism with "OF"

What do you think?
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14 Sep 2003, 07:44
MartinMag wrote:
Barely missed

Probably because of the parallelism with "OF"

What do you think?

Would you mind telling me the source of this SC..

It is difficult to see why E is better than D

can you check the answer again please?

thanks
praetorian

Last edited by Praetorian on 15 Sep 2003, 06:32, edited 1 time in total.
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14 Sep 2003, 20:35
Oops! Sorry about that! Answer is D and not E

Could you explain a little further? Why is E wrong?
Is "that" better than "which" ?

Thanks and sorry again

Martin
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15 Sep 2003, 06:29
Hey Martin

I made some changes to the above post ...

Thanks
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15 Sep 2003, 06:50
Thanks a lot Praetorian

Now I see it
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2006, 14:05
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its

(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
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06 Jun 2006, 14:34
a system, which "makes" not "making" so this eliminates A and C

possessive Japan's followed by "to be" is wrong, so left out with B

B is parallel and uses "which makes," so it is my OA
06 Jun 2006, 14:34

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# Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system

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