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# Jupiter's moon Europa

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20 Jun 2010, 04:13
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Hi,

Can someone explain the choices?

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Europa.JPG [ 41.12 KiB | Viewed 9128 times ]

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20 Jun 2010, 10:15
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This is what I think:

With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and, with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom

A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with
And is not required here. If we use AND then there should be a verb to support parallelism as in - Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, AND, with 60 square miles of water IS thought to be frozen from top to bottom

B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its
Think of it like this: Europa, its 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom, has long been considered far too cold to support life.
This is a type of modifier I think although I'm not sure what the construction is called.

C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has
'Considered as' is wrong.

D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its
'Considered as' is wrong.
This sentence is a fragment, it does not have a verb - considered is not a proper verb, its a participle.

E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have
This sentence is a fragment, it does not have a verb - considered is not a proper verb, its a participle.
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03 Jul 2010, 09:58
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Hey All,

I was asked by PM to weigh in on this one, though sid has already hit some important points. Here we go.

With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and, with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom

I'd start by saying that generally GMAT prefers the idiom "estimate to be", rather than "estimate at", even though it's not underlined.

A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with
Sid hit this just right. If we use "and", we're setting up parallel clauses, so we'd need some new verb to make it work.

B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its
The term Sid was looking for is "participial phrase". "thought" is a past participle, meaning it opens up a modifying clauses, in this case modifying "its 60 square miles of water".

C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has
"Considered as" is wrong, and even though this creates a parallel AND adds a verb, it's still clunky. We want a modifier because we're creating an example of how it's too cold to support life (it's water is frozen all the way through), not making a new point.

D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its
'Considered as' is wrong. This also makes the same mistake as answer choice A. In addition, as Sid said, it has no main verb after "Europa", because considered here is a participle (like "thought" later on), which is not a full verb.

E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have
Sid nailed it. We have the participle "considered" again, and "to have" is just an infinitive riffing off of "considered", like "to be" in the middle portion. With no main verb in the whole sentence, it can't work.

Well done, Sid, and I hope I cleared up any lingering questions.

-t
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20 Jun 2010, 04:34
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C, D, E OUT. consider as and consider to be are unidiomatic

Between A and B

A fails parallelism. I need another "has" to make it parallel.

B is left.
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02 Jul 2010, 10:59
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seekmba wrote:
Hey sidhu4u,

can you shed some light on the word 'thought' in option (A)....is it not a VERB? Why do we need 'IS' when we have the word 'thought'?

In option A the AND introduces a parallel structure - both left and right should be parallel.

left: Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life
right: Europa thought to be frozen from top to bottom (I've removed the with 60 miles of water that modifies Europa)

In the above, left and right are not parallel. To make them parallel:
Europa has long been considered || Europa is thought to be frozen

'thought' by itself is not a verb here. If a sentence is to be constructed with 'thought' alone as a verb then I think (notice I've used the present tense of 'thought' as a verb here) it should look like: Europa thought that she was frozen from top to bottom - this construction is silly as it gives life to Europa.
The author is trying to say 'Everyone thinks that Europa is frozen from top to bottom' which is why we have 'Europa is thought to be (by everyone) frozen..'.

Hope you get what I'm trying to say...Please let me know if you need further clarity. Also, there's a good explanation of this topic here.
Sid
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20 Jun 2010, 04:55
ykaiim wrote:
Hi,

Can someone explain the choices?

Attachment:
Europa.JPG

pls explain the answer and source as well
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20 Jun 2010, 05:28
OA is B.

Source - GMATPrep
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02 Jul 2010, 09:08
Hey sidhu4u,

can you shed some light on the word 'thought' in option (A)....is it not a VERB? Why do we need 'IS' when we have the word 'thought'?
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02 Jul 2010, 11:03
Thank you sidhu4u. This helps.
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04 Jul 2010, 05:30
Thanks for verifying, Tommy. For most questions I'm able to nail the right answer although some of it is based on impulse and gut feeling, with a lot of help from the manhattan sc rules. Its rather difficult to name each of the constructions - I hope this approach is sufficient to scoring well on the SC section.
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07 Jul 2010, 09:30
Hey Sid,

If you're really using all the rules without naming them, that should be enough. But I find categorization is dependent on really having the names of the categories in your head, otherwise it's too much gut. I don't know how you're scoring on SC, but if you take our free practice test and your SC percent is under 60/65% correct, definitely consider pushing it a little harder and learning all the terminology. If you're doing better than that, however, it means that whatever you're doing is working, so keep doing it!

-t
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07 Jul 2010, 09:57
Hey Tommy,

I'd done the free test quite a while back and scored 67% in verbal. After that I bought the Manhattan sc guide 4th ed. and worked quite a bit on SC.
Recently I did the 25 questions in the SC question bank that is included with the purchase of the SC strategy guide and scored 21/25. Seems pretty ok, however the one thing I'm concerned about - All four mistakes were on 500-600 level questions where I narrowed down answers to two choices and then skipped the right choice for very vague reasons such as the right choice looking too simple or of an idiomatic construction I'd never come across.. ...Weird? I felt that this was slightly because I was aggressively looking for mistakes based on rules and that if I'd have gone with my gut feelings I'd have got those right.
Have you noticed this kind of an issue with any students, if so, how do I overcome this?

Btw, the Manhattan SC guide truly rocks!. I was never weak at verbal but the concepts this book taught me really redefined my approach to grammar. Hats off to you guys..

Sid
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07 Jul 2010, 10:24
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07 Jul 2010, 14:04
Hey Sid,

To take this piece by piece:

I'd done the free test quite a while back and scored 67% in verbal. -- Nice! Though definitely still room for improvement.

Recently I did the 25 questions in the SC question bank that is included with the purchase of the SC strategy guide and scored 21/25.
-That's a solid percentage.

All four mistakes were on 500-600 level questions where I narrowed down answers to two choices and then skipped the right choice for very vague reasons such as the right choice looking too simple or of an idiomatic construction I'd never come across.
--Vague reasons are tough. You should always be able to verbalize the exact reason you're crossing something off, even if it's meaning or concision ("I'm crossing out B because it's unclear what the modifier is referring to," for example).

I felt that this was slightly because I was aggressively looking for mistakes based on rules and that if I'd have gone with my gut feelings I'd have got those right.
--Remember, if you were aggressively look for mistakes based on rules, then you cross something off for a "vague reason", you're not using the rules. So you can hardly use the rules for that. If you think an issue is idiomatic or meaning, then you have to go with your gut/inherent understanding. But just recognize when you're doing it, and don't mix rule-based process of elimination with gut-based process of elimination (And always do as much of the former as possible before switching to the latter).

Btw, the Manhattan SC guide truly rocks!. I was never weak at verbal but the concepts this book taught me really redefined my approach to grammar. Hats off to you guys..

-t
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08 Jul 2010, 06:56
Hey Sid, is it possible to upload the 25 questions in the SC question bank in this forum?
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08 Jul 2010, 09:49
Hey Sid,

I'd prefer if you didn't do that. While the forums are meant to be a place for people to discuss any material out there (including ours), it's not a place to simply share out all the material we have just so others can see it. Seek, if you want full access to all that stuff, all you need to do is buy the SC guide, which is very reasonably priced! Or, if you're really insistent, merely by searching the forums (here and elsewhere), you can probably find many of our questions discussed somewhere or another. : )

-tommy
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08 Jul 2010, 10:01
Yeah Seekmba, I got those 25 questions along with the purchase of the SC guide so I'd be violating copyrights if I were to post those questions here. I'd suggest you go ahead and get the SC guide (1st preference) or the Number properties guide (2nd preference). Both these books are top notch and you also get access to the corresponding question banks (25 questions each) and 1 year's access to the 6 online MGMAT tests.
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19 Apr 2014, 13:26
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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24 Aug 2014, 06:28
It is an example that tests noun+noun modifier concept. another similar examples are

1)[b]Floating in the waters of the equatorial Pacific, an array of buoys collects and transmits data on long-term
interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, interactions that affect global climate.

2)Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living in a highly
cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile
female workers.
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08 Oct 2015, 03:28
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Jupiter's moon Europa   [#permalink] 08 Oct 2015, 03:28

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