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# Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in

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01 May 2012, 04:37
I think this question is ambigious.

On one hand I understand nevergiveups and jainus explanations, but on the other hand the MGMT states that one should use past perfect only when necessary (ie. to clarfiy or emphasize the time sequence). In the sentence here the time sequence is absolutely clear and to keep the sentence as simple as possible we should use simple past, hence A.

So, either OA or MGMT is wrong.
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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01 May 2012, 09:53
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Hi All,

Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he also won the loyalty of its citizens: the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used it to their advantage in 893.

Since the meaning of the sentence is easy to understand let’s begin the POE. We will identify the errors in the sentence through POE itself.

Choice A: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he. Incorrect. This choice is incorrect because the verb “did not mean” does not have a subject and that leads to fragment.

Choice B: The fact that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he had. Correct. In this choice, verb “did not mean” has a subject “the fact” and that fact is that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886.

Choice C: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he. Incorrect. Pronoun “it” in this choice is referring to the entire preceding. This is incorrect because a pronoun cannot refer to anything but a noun or another pronoun.

Choice D: The fact that King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean that he. Incorrect. There are two errors here.
1. Subject “The fact” does not have a verb and hence we have a fragment here.
2. Pronoun “it” is again referring to the entire preceding clause.

Choice E: Just because King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he. Incorrect. Pronoun “it” is again referring to the entire preceding clause.

PS: Notice that the chronology of the actions in this sentence is very clear. Mention of the specific years when the actions took place establish the sequence clearly. Still the use of past perfect is preferable here because the sentence says "the fact did not mean". If it said "the fact does not mean", then we could easily do with the simple past tense.

1. When the sequence of the events is established by obvious markers, use of past perfect tense becomes optional.
2. Pronoun can only refer to a noun or another pronoun.
3. Every clause, independent or dependent must have subject-verb pair. Absence of any of the two leads to fragment error.

Hope this helps.

Thanks.
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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01 May 2012, 10:14
amitbehera wrote:
What is wrong with option 'E' ? Could anyone help??

it in E does not have a clear antecedent.. it cannot refer to humans
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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01 May 2012, 14:41
Excellent explanation egmat. Many thanks.
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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02 May 2012, 02:51
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he also won the loyalty of its citizens: the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used it to their advantage in 893.

Since the meaning of the sentence is easy to understand let’s begin the POE. We will identify the errors in the sentence through POE itself.

Choice A: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he. Incorrect. This choice is incorrect because the verb “did not mean” does not have a subject and that leads to fragment.

Choice B: The fact that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he had. Correct. In this choice, verb “did not mean” has a subject “the fact” and that fact is that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886.

Choice C: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he. Incorrect. Pronoun “it” in this choice is referring to the entire preceding. This is incorrect because a pronoun cannot refer to anything but a noun or another pronoun.

Choice D: The fact that King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean that he. Incorrect. There are two errors here.
1. Subject “The fact” does not have a verb and hence we have a fragment here.
2. Pronoun “it” is again referring to the entire preceding clause.

Choice E: Just because King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he. Incorrect. Pronoun “it” is again referring to the entire preceding clause.

PS: Notice that the chronology of the actions in this sentence is very clear. Mention of the specific years when the actions took place establish the sequence clearly. Still the use of past perfect is preferable here because the sentence says "the fact did not mean". If it said "the fact does not mean", then we could easily do with the simple past tense.

1. When the sequence of the events is established by obvious markers, use of past perfect tense becomes optional.
2. Pronoun can only refer to a noun or another pronoun.
3. Every clause, independent or dependent must have subject-verb pair. Absence of any of the two leads to fragment error.

Hope this helps.

Thanks.

Kudos for the explanation Shraddha ..
I have one question. What does the it refer to in the second portion:

Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he also won the loyalty of its citizens: the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used itto their advantage in 893.

(A) Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he
(B) The fact that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he had
(C) Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he
(D) The fact that King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean that he
(E) Just because King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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02 May 2012, 05:43
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rohitgoel15 wrote:

Kudos for the explanation Shraddha ..
I have one question. What does the it refer to in the second portion:

Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he also won the loyalty of its citizens: the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used itto their advantage in 893.

(A) Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he
(B) The fact that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he had
(C) Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he
(D) The fact that King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean that he
(E) Just because King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he

Thanks for the Kudos.
The possessive "its" refers to "London" in this sentence. Citizens belong only a to country and there is just one country mentioned in the sentence before "its". Now, do not get confused to see a possessive pronoun referring to a non-possessive noun. It is absolutely fine for a possessive pronoun to refer to a non-possessive noun. However, a possessive noun cannot be referred to by a non-possessive pronoun.
For example, we cannot say: Lisa's cat is very pretty and she takes very good care of it.
In this sentence, non-possessive "she" cannot be used for possessive Lisa's.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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02 May 2012, 05:46
Thanks again Shraddha. But in the questions I am talking of "it". There is no "its".
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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02 May 2012, 05:55
Hi Rohit,
My bad. I thought you asked about the possessive "its" in the first part of the sentence.
"it" in the second part of the sentence is referring to "weakness".

Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he also won the loyalty of its citizens: the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used it to their advantage in 893.

The Danes were aware of this weakness that King Alfred had not won the loyalty of the citizen. So the Danes used that weakness to their advantage in 893.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2013, 07:10
egmat wrote:
Hi Rohit,
My bad. I thought you asked about the possessive "its" in the first part of the sentence.
"it" in the second part of the sentence is referring to "weakness".

Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he also won the loyalty of its citizens: the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used it to their advantage in 893.

The Danes were aware of this weakness that King Alfred had not won the loyalty of the citizen. So the Danes used that weakness to their advantage in 893.

Hope this helps.

The fact that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he had

I have two questions in regards to tenses.
1) I thought that Alfred occupied (had before verb occupied) first and then fortified in the the year 886
2) he had occupied and he had -also- won - using two past perfect sentence within the same sentence .

he had jogged and ran in the morning.
Does this refer to two different actions or two simultaneous actions ?

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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2013, 14:45
If you don't mind, lemme jump in.

vigneshceg wrote:
I have two questions in regards to tenses.
1) I thought that Alfred occupied (had before verb occupied) first and then fortified in the the year 886

You're correct. Yet both verbs are used in past perfect. The reason is that the author wants to emphasize the time sequence, so he used past perfect. Otherwise, we stick to the simple past.

Quote:
2) he had occupied and he had -also- won - using two past perfect sentence within the same sentence.

No, the author wants to say "the fact that X did not mean Y", the clause Y does not reflex the tense sequence from the previous clause X. Because there's "he", so the clause Y is different from the previous clause X. (if YES, we should eliminate "he")

Quote:
he had jogged and ran in the morning.
Does this refer to two different actions or two simultaneous actions ?

Please be noted that two different actions can happen simultaneously. e.g. he was talking while running. "Talk" and "run" are different actions, but happen simultaneously.
As far as I know, your question is: can one subject do two different actions at the same time (simultaneously)?. It depends on the context.

I think your sentence is just a report and also there is no specific time needed to be emphasized, so Past Perfect tense is unnecessary. Although your sentence reflexes two sequence actions, we just need one tense, rather than two different tenses.

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07 Apr 2013, 06:21
nevergiveup wrote:
ritula wrote:
Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he also won the loyalty of its citizens: the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used it to their advantage in 893.

(A) Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he
(B) The fact that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he had
(C) Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he
(D) The fact that King Alfred occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean that he
(E) Just because King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886, it did not mean he

I am going to try to use the split and resplit method I just studied from manhattan gmat.

First split, the action happened in 886 is before the past action in 893; therefore, past perfect is needed. So eliminate A, C, and D.

Second split, it does not have clear referent. So eliminate C, D, and E

The correct answer should be B. Total time used to answer this question 30secs.

I agree to what you are trying to say.. but do we need to have HAD in the latter half of the statement as well??
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2013, 09:33
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Hi, yes you do need the second 'had'

The main sentence is the second part, after the colon.

The underlined section is all prior to the comma and is referring to that later action. So everything in that section happened before the main part of the sentence, so all needs the 'had'

Clear?
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2013, 23:46
plumber250 wrote:
Hi, yes you do need the second 'had'

The main sentence is the second part, after the colon.

The underlined section is all prior to the comma and is referring to that later action. So everything in that section happened before the main part of the sentence, so all needs the 'had'

Clear?

Hi,
I`m still confused. Is it possible for you to break the sentence on lines of timeline ?
Is it possible for you to provide a simple sentence with two hads used ?
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2013, 00:36
OK, Here is the correct answer in full:

The fact that King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he had also won the loyalty of its citizens: the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used it to their advantage in 893.

If you split it down, it is essentially saying:

Because this:

King Alfred had occupied and fortified London in 886 did not mean that he had also won the loyalty of its citizens

Happened

This then happened afterwards:

the invading Danes were well aware of this weakness and used it to their advantage in 893

So every thing that happened first needs to be shown to be further in the past than the stuff that happened second.
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2015, 13:25
amitbehera wrote:
What is wrong with option 'E' ? Could anyone help??

Hi,

I too feel that option E is better than B, because there is a colon separating two independent clauses. The first clause is in past perfect and second is in simple past. The use of second had is not correct in option B.
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2016, 08:55
I also choose b but there is a problem in b.

past perfect never go with a point of time. so, B is not grammatical
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2016, 03:16
A good tense question! B is the only option that makes sense. Had has to be used here!
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2017, 21:26
i'm afraid the two pronoun in the latter part of the sentance "its" &"it" is not properly used.they refer to different antecedents so the whole stimulus is debatable. Some one agrees with me?
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Re: Just because King Alfred occupied and fortified London in   [#permalink] 30 Jan 2017, 21:26

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