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# Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of sys

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Senior RC Moderator
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
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GPA: 3.39
Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of sys  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 15 Mar 2019, 12:51
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Question 2
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40% (00:57) correct 60% (01:16) wrong

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 85, Date : 15-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is
of systems of thought. A theory, however elegant and
economical, must be rejected or revised if it is untrue.
Likewise, laws and institutions, no matter how efficient
(5) and well arranged, must be reformed or abolished if they
are unjust. Each person possesses inviolability, founded on
justice, which even the welfare of society as a whole can-
not override. For this reason, justice denies that the loss of
freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared
(10) by others. It does not allow that the sacrifices imposed
on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages
enjoyed by many.

Therefore, in a just society the liberties of equal citizenship
are taken as settled; the rights secured by justice are not
(15) subject to political bargaining or to the calculus of social
interests. The only thing that permits us to acquiesce to an
erroneous theory is the lack of a better one; analogously, an
injustice is tolerable only when it is necessary to avoid an
even greater injustice. As primary virtues of human activi-
(20) ties, truth and justice are uncompromising.

These propositions seem to express our intuitive conviction
of the primacy of justice. One might inquire whether these
contentions or others similar to them are sound, and if so,
how they can be accounted for. To this end, it is necessary
(25) to work out a theory of justice in light of which these
assertions can be interpreted and assessed.

Begin by considering the role of principles of justice. Assume
that a society is a more or less self-sufficient as-
sociation of persons who, in their relations to one another,
(30) recognize certain rules of conduct as binding and who,
for the most part, act in accordance with them. Suppose
further that these rules specify a system of cooperation
designed to advance the good of those taking part in it.
Then, although a society is a cooperative venture for mutual
(35) advancement, it is typically marked by a conflict as well as
by an identity of interests. There is an identity of interests
since social cooperation makes possible a better life for all
than any would have if each were to live solely by his own
efforts. There is a conflict of interests since persons are not
(40) indifferent to how the greater benefits produced by their
collaborations are distributed, for in order to pursue their
ends they each prefer a larger to a lesser share.

A set of principles is required for choosing among the various
social arrangements that determine this division of ad-
(45) vantages and for underwriting an agreement on the proper
distributive shares. These principles are the principles of
social justice: they provide a way for assigning rights and
duties in the basic institutions of society and they define
the appropriate distribution of the benefits and burdens of
(50) social cooperation.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that one can permit the use of an imperfect theory of justice

A. under no circumstances, for to do so would violate the idea of justice.
B. only if it would allow for the greater good of the society.
C. only if a more just theory cannot be found.
D. whenever it is agreed upon by a majority of the society.
E. whenever it would effectively prevent certain injustices.

2. According to the passage, a society is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

A. self-sufficient individuals.
B. a collaborative effort for common progress.
C. an adherence to certain rules of behavior.
D. a conflict of interest among individuals.
E. a common interest in social cooperation.

3. The author implies that, in order to ascertain whether convictions concerning the inherent nature of justice are valid, one must

A. determine the context in which they can be assessed.
B. shed light on the role of the principles of justice.
C. meet all of the requirements of a just society.
D. account for the principle of justice in society.
E. establish a theory of justice with which to evaluate them.

The Princeton Review Crash Course for the GMAT 2013 (168)

_________________

Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 15 Mar 2019, 12:51, edited 1 time in total.
Updated
Senior RC Moderator
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
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GPA: 3.39
Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of sys  [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2019, 08:16
1

Official Explanation

1. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that one can permit the use of an imperfect theory of justice

Explanation

This is a specific question, so use your key words, imperfect theory of justice, to skim the paragraph. You will find these words toward the end of the first paragraph. The best answer choice will paraphrase this information.

A No. The author says nothing about violating the idea of justice.

B No. Greater good is not mentioned in this part of the passage.

C Yes. In the second-to-last sentence of the first paragraph, the author says, “The only thing that permits us to acquiesce to an erroneous theory is the lack of a better one.”

D No. In the first paragraph, the author says that justice “does not allow that the sacrifices imposed on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages enjoyed by many.”

E Not quite. In the first paragraph, the author says “an injustice is tolerable only when it is necessary to avoid an even greater injustice.”

2. According to the passage, a society is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

Since this is an EXCEPT question, you’re looking for the answer choice that is not true. Those answer choices that you can support with information found in the passage should be ruled out.

A Yes. A society may be self-sufficient, but the individuals within it are not.

B No. The author says that the rules of a society “specify a system of cooperation designed to advance the good of those taking part in it.”

C No. According to the passage, members of a society “recognize certain rules of conduct as binding.”

D No. The author says, “there is a conflict of interests.”

E No. Within a society, “social cooperation makes possible a better life for all.”

3. The author implies that, in order to ascertain whether convictions concerning the inherent nature of justice are valid, one must

In lines 24–26, the author says, “it is necessary to work out a theory of justice in light of which these assertions can be interpreted and assessed.” Eliminate all answer choices that are not a paraphrase of this idea.

A No. Context is not discussed here.

B No. This concept is discussed much earlier in the passage.

C No. “All” is extreme wording. Eliminate it.

D No. Justice in society is discussed later in the passage.

E Yes. This is a paraphrase of what the author contends in lines 24–26.

Hope it helps
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##### General Discussion
Intern
Joined: 22 May 2018
Posts: 49
Re: Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of sys  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2019, 09:55
Time - 12:24. 2 correct.
2nd question - how can the answer be a. it is clearly mentioned in line 28 that society is associated with self sufficient individuals.
Manager
Joined: 11 Aug 2017
Posts: 59
Re: Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of sys  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2019, 18:51
Time - 12:24. 2 correct.
2nd question - how can the answer be a. it is clearly mentioned in line 28 that society is associated with self sufficient individuals.

yes exactly same question..
Manager
Joined: 27 Mar 2017
Posts: 118
Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of sys  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 26 Nov 2019, 20:40
The 4th paragraphs states that the society is self-sufficient composed of individuals who rely on each other and who have common interests as well as conflicts. It doesn't say that individuals are self-sufficient.

Originally posted by altairahmad on 26 Nov 2019, 20:35.
Last edited by altairahmad on 26 Nov 2019, 20:40, edited 1 time in total.
Manager
Joined: 27 Mar 2017
Posts: 118
Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of sys  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2019, 20:37
Time - 12:24. 2 correct.
2nd question - how can the answer be a. it is clearly mentioned in line 28 that society is associated with self sufficient individuals.

yes exactly same question..

celo700 mohammad ali khan The 4th paragraph states that the society is self-sufficient composed of individuals who rely on each other and who have common interests as well as conflicts. It doesn't say that individuals are self-sufficient.
Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of sys   [#permalink] 26 Nov 2019, 20:37
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