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# Key Fundamentals of Grammar -crucial learnings on SC

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Key Fundamentals of Grammar -crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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04 May 2010, 02:41
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Hi all,

Almost daily I encounter one SC, which has very good learning. There are almost two choices with a minute difference b/w them and that success on this boosts/kills your verbal %ile. I hope others are also finding the same.

So, I want to post my all my learnings and similarly, expect others to share their learnings. I will include all the threads of my learning or attach docs, which I have created over the past two months. The stated threads will have very good discussion on some key fundamentals on grammer.

Note: Please don't just post the link on idioms as idioms' list is very long. Try to post that link which you find having very important fundamental on English grammer.

1. Economic Vs Economical (economic-vs-economical-93513.html)

2. Have Vs Will (have-vs-will-93657.html)

3. Original meaning of sentence (changing-meaning-of-original-sentence-93405.html)

4. Verb: began vs begun.
>>>> began - past form, which can be used with out any helping verb, of begin.
>>>> begun - past participle form, which cannot be used without any helping verbs/models such as can, could, will, would, shall, should, ought to, has/have/had, may/might/must etc. tricky-sc-series-86098.html

5. 'Spoke with' means have a conversation. 'Spoke to' means the other party is just listening (no two way conversation or heated arguments) and it is also used in American English to mean an unfriendly conversation. Both are correct idioms. tricky-sc-series-86110.html

6. May be Vs Probably Vs Due to Vs Because of
may-be-vs-probably-82868.html

7. Subjunctive Rules
subjunctive-and-use-of-that-with-simple-verb-form-79606.html

8. HAVE BEEN Vs WAS/WERE
usage-of-have-been-kaplan-94724.html

Attachment:

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Last edited by ykaiim on 25 May 2010, 08:15, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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05 May 2010, 07:18
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Hi all,

I have updated the attached doc with my new learnings. These are:

11. Being itself is indicative of the reason, so "was the reason", “because” is redundant.

12. Verb: began vs begun:

1. began - past form, which can be used with out any helping verb, of begin.
2. begun - past participle form, which cannot be used without any helping verbs/models such as can, could, will, would, shall, should, ought to, has/have/had, may/might/must etc.
tricky-sc-series-86098.html

13. 'Spoke with' means have a conversation. 'Spoke to' means the other party is just listening (no two way conversation or heated arguments) and it is also used in American English to mean an unfriendly conversation. Both are correct idioms.
tricky-sc-series-86110.html

14. 'distinction of x' is more idiomatic than 'distinction than x' or 'distinction to be x'

15. As Vs Like:

I work AS an analyst (introduce a role)
I work LIKE a beast (true comparison), we cannot say “I work as a beast”…
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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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04 May 2010, 03:46
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Thanks but it starts from number 5?
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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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06 May 2010, 06:34
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Hi all,

I have attached some more learnings on Grammer. I hope these will be helpful:

16. When ever there is "as high as" or as low as" or any such comparison, it should be done against a fixed number and not against a range (3 to 4, $5bl -$10bl).

17. You never says leading to X percent, rather you say leading to a X percent (Idomatic) increase/decrease.

The recent surge in the number of airplane flights has clogged the nation’s air-traffic control system, to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts fears among some officials that safety is being
compromised.
(A) to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts
(B) leading to 55 percent more delay at airports and prompting
(C) to lead to a 55 percent increase in delay at airports and prompt
(D) to lead to an increase of 55 percent in delays at airports, and prompted
(E) leading to a 55 percent increase in delays at airports and prompting

18. In spite of VS Although:
"in spite of", "despite" are prepositions and "although", "though", "even though" are conjunction. So correct would be

"in spite of", "despite" + noun
"although", "though", "even though" + clause

Examples -
a. Although it is cold outside, she insists on keeping her coat on.
b. Despite warm weather, she kept her coat on.

"is spite of" and "despite" can also be used as adverbial constructions with -ing.
Ex - I managed to pass my exam, despite going out four times a week during the revision period.

19. When using the term distinction to indicate difference, the correct preposition to use is between.

20. Even if vs Even though

Even if - means whether or not and has to do with the conditions that may apply. Even if is used as a conjunction.(even though cannot act as a conjunction). Remember, you need a subject after Even if. Ex -
a. Even if I had time, I wouldn't watch that programme.
b. Even if Mark told the truth, I wouldn't believe him.

c. For most consumers, the price of automobile insurance continues to rise annually, even if free of damage claims and moving violations.
(A) even if
(B) despite being
(C) even if they are
(D) although they may be
(E) even if remaining

d. For many people, household labor remains demanding even if able to afford household appliances their grandparents would find a miracle.
(A) even if able to afford household appliances their grandparents would find a miracle
(B) despite being able to afford household appliances their grandparents would find a miracle
(C) even if they can afford household appliances their grandparents would have found miraculous
(D) although they could afford household appliances their grandparents would find miraculous
(E) even if they are able to afford household appliances which would have been a miracle to their grandparents

Even though - Even though means despite the fact that and is a more emphatic version of though and although. It is primarily concessive.

a. Even though I had time, I didn't watch that programme
b. Even though Mark told the truth, I didn't believe him.

The differences can be appreciated in this sentence
1. I'm going out, even if it rains
2. I'm going out, even though it's going to rain

In (1), we do not know whether it will rain or not in (1) so we use even if and in (2) we know that it is going to rain but we are going out anyway.
even-if-although-despite-when-to-use-each-83155.html

21. "however" used at the beginning of a sentence, without a comma, means “in whatever manner” or “to whatever extent.”

You shouldn't use However - whenever it means 'nevertheless' - at the beginning of any sentence.

HOWEVER is used to express contrast and is used at the head of a new sentence. “I was accepted at Harvard; however, I did not accept the offer.”

However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole spends beyong its means , it is difficult to find broad support for a movement towar a minimal state.

However - used at the beginning of teh sentence
Nevertheless - can within the sentence

22. More on contrasting terms:

BUT is used to express contrast that belies normal expectation. “I took the GMAT but did not apply to Business schools’ is an example of such contrast

ALTHOUGH is used to express POSITIVE CONTRAST given a NEGATIVE situation. “Although I did not score well on the GMAT, I was accepted at Harvard.”

DESPITE is used to express NEGATIVE CONTRAST given a positive or beneficial situation.
“Despite the fact that he is rich, he is miserable.”

NEVERTHELESS is used as a CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB to express a contrast. “He was accepted at Harvard but he was NEVERTHELESS unexcited.”
Attachments

Grammer fundamentals.doc [39.5 KiB]

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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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15 May 2010, 23:00
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Hi all,

I have uploaded the latest doc on grammer fundamentals which I learnt till 16th May 2010. Please update your copy.
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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2010, 03:20
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dear frnds
it would be of grt help if your could share some material on grammar or sentence correction basics/rules etc. recurring trend of concepts tested in GMAT
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06 May 2010, 22:23
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Hi all,

Can I expect some more fundamentals from your end?

Regards.
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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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13 May 2010, 06:24
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Hi all,

I have added some more links. Currently, I am working on updating the key fundamentals doc and will upload it soon. So, please feel free to refer these.

Regards.
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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2010, 03:30
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Refer Manhattan SC and follow GmatClub.
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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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04 May 2010, 04:12
The first 4 are on Idioms.

gurpreetsingh wrote:
Thanks but it starts from number 5?

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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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07 May 2010, 00:05
Great job ykaiim

I will try and be regular. My 0.02\$

1. That Vs Which
use that when the information that follows is mandatory to identify the subject of the main clause
use which when the information that follows is not mandatory to identify the subject of the main clause

2. When you see "[highlight]different[/highlight]" in a SC question ask yourself whether the comparison is
between two nouns or
between noun and a clause.
"[highlight]different than[/highlight]" is used when a sentence compares a noun and a clause. Pick the answer choices accordingly.

3."to do so" is correct usage "to do it" is incorrect
eg: despite them attempting to do it, doctors have not yet found a cure for common cold (INCORRECT)
despite them attempting to do so, doctors have not yet found a cure for common cold (CORRECT)

4. "act like" means to behave or comport oneself and describes the action of a person.
eg: He acted like a fool
"act as" describes the function of a thing (inanimate thing performing a function)

5. When doubt is used in a negative context such as there is no doubt or he does not doubt it should be followed by that.
In context of questions that also introduces a clause following doubt
In other contexts, whether or if should be used to introduce a clause following doubt
eg: I doubt whether he will come.

6. When since refers to time, it should generally be followed by the present perfect tense, which describes action that began in the past and continues into the present.

7. In addition to the As vs Like mentioned earlier I would like to add
Like - it is used to introduce a phrase
As - it is used to introduce a clause

8. It must always follow a noun, not an action
Chad says I took his cookies, but I didn't do it (Incorrect)
Chad says I took his cookies, but I didn't take them (Correct)

9. Who vs Whom
If you can't stuck between the use of who and whom, try this : rephrase the sentence to get rid of who or whom

If you find you've replaced who/whom with he, she or they then "who" is correct
If you find you've replaced who/whom with him, her or them then "whom" is correct
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07 May 2010, 00:28
Thanks sh00nya.

This is just great refreshment. If possible, can you add some more examples with your points. I think that will be great.
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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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07 May 2010, 15:58

When are you retaking your exam.
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07 May 2010, 22:10
Thanks Gurpreetsingh.

If you have some key fundamentals then please post here. May be we all can share from your posts.

Tests is on 24th Jun 2010.

gurpreetsingh wrote:

When are you retaking your exam.

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Re: Key Fundamentals of Grammer - Our crucial learnings on SC [#permalink]

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08 May 2010, 00:47
Best of luck, date is approaching soon.

Actually right now I have not prepared any notes, I m just reading the mgmat SC again, after 2 revisions I will start with 3rd revision + flash cards + OG.
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08 May 2010, 01:05
Thanks.

I am just concentrating on revision now, esp on reading all the choices and avoiding some careless mistakes.

gurpreetsingh wrote:
Best of luck, date is approaching soon.

Actually right now I have not prepared any notes, I m just reading the mgmat SC again, after 2 revisions I will start with 3rd revision + flash cards + OG.

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09 May 2010, 09:16
Hi all,

I have found a very useful doc on Manhattan website on Grammer fundamentals.
Please go thru it. This is really give your grammer fundamentals a boost to conquer in GMAT.

You can find not only a shorter version of Manhattan SC 2003/05 ed, but also many concepts not covered in those editions.

Regards.

Attachment:
MR-Sentence-Correction-Guide.pdf [458.74 KiB]

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09 May 2010, 10:16
i dont know how legitimate it is to upload Manhattan material.........
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09 May 2010, 10:53
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20 May 2010, 02:43
hmm... ironically, the attachment spells Grammar as Grammer
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