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# Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests

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29 Aug 2011, 08:57
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Hey GMAT Club,

We know you guys are always looking for more difficult practice problems, so we dug through our question bank and found some good ones. Take a shot at this critical reasoning problem, and do your best to explain your answer choice as clearly and concisely as possible. At the end of the week, a GMAT Club moderator will choose the best answer, and the student who submitted it will receive a free Knewton t-shirt from our newly launched Knewton Store, as well as access to the GMAT Club Tests for 1 year. Good luck!

Just so you all know - we'll be announcing the winner on Tuesday (you guys get an extra day to think, thanks to the holiday weekend)! Keep the answers coming!

 ! The thread is closed for submissions. The winner will be announced on Tuesday.

A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed supports the hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.

The argument in this passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

[A] All animals that are born after a short gestation period are born with some parts of their bodies underdeveloped.
[B] Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
[C] If the newborn marsupial lion did not climb into its mother’s pouch, then paleontologists would be able to find evidence of this fact.
[D] Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.
[E] Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions.

Last edited by bb on 05 Sep 2011, 22:22, edited 2 times in total.
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02 Sep 2011, 03:56
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A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed supports the hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.

The argument in this passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

[A] All animals that are born after a short gestation period are born with some parts of their bodies underdeveloped.
[B] Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
[C] If the newborn marsupial lion did not climb into its mother’s pouch, then paleontologists would be able to find evidence of this fact.
[D] Newborn marsupial lions that crawled into their mothers’ pouches could not have done so had they not had only their forelimbs developed at birth.
[E] Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were of no use to the marsupial lions.

Evidence 1: For a new Kangaroo gestation period = 39days (SHORT GESTATION)
Evidence 2: Hind limbs are not well developed but Fore limbs are well developed. Why?
Evidence 3: So, that they can climb in to the pouch (Key word is So, that)
Main Conclusion: The evidence found in the lions strengthens the conclusion that developed forelimbs meant that they used this for climbing into the pouch of the adult lion.

Assumption should Eliminate a possibility of use of the fore limb or suggest some similiarity between Lions and Kangaroos.

A) INCORRECT. A addresses an assumption for Evidence 1, which is in fact irrelevant to the argument
B) INCORRECT. This highlights a relative comparison between the two limbs which is outside the scope of this argument.
C) INCORRECT. Outside the scope of this argument as well. Because it refers to a hypothetical possibility not relating to the evidence or the conclusion.
D) INCORRECT. This is the correct "wrong" answer. In fact this question talks about the possibility of not only this hind limbs. This statement talks about Fore limbs being the ONLY reason for the climbing. In fact this aspect of the argument is not discussed here. We only wish to know if the presence of a fore limb strengthens the fact that fore limbs are present for climbing into the pouch.
E) CORRECT. Try the negative test to confirm the answer: Newborn marsupial lions would not have had only their forelimbs developed if this development were used by the marsupial lions. This is also the only answer which connects the new born marsupials to the EVIDENCE OF ANCIENT MARSUPIALS (which maybe adults or young ones).
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2011, 11:23
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Expert's post
Congratulations mourinhogmat1!!!
I liked the clue for what to look “Assumption should be…”, also the “correct wrong answer” concept/idea is highlighted, and finally the negation test (I wish it was used on D as well and I wish there was better formatting).

Also, I would like to thank all members who responded and would like to identify these members who got very close to winning:

gmatcracker24 – interesting approach; concise
Dhaswe – very direct and good explanation but a bit minimalistic
yogesh1984 – chose D but gave great reasoning
vamshikrishna – first post on GMAT Club and very clear logic but did not fully list why D was wrong (found only one of the reasons, though was enough to get to the correct answer)
a1choi – very good overview
karan2483 – great answer but the explanation of why D is wrong could be stronger
bficcade – also a first time poster. Did not address other answer choices except the correct one
abidshariff – Kudos for the multi-color use. Wish spent more time explaining the premise/conclusion/assumptions in the passage (what these concepts are)
alicegmat – Fantastic answer and was definitely one of the leading choices but it did not offer a glance at a “raw assumption” that one would come up with after reading the question. The strategy to answer the question in your own words without looking at the answer choices is not reflected here.
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2011, 21:39
ANS : D
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30 Aug 2011, 05:27
E
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2011, 09:24
E is the correct answer !!

The last sentence is the conclusion . : "the new born.........pounches."
A) Loser : author discusses only between kangaroo and lion but her we have "ALL"
B)Loser :False comparison.
C)Loser : Out of scope;we are not discussing about Paleontologists.
D) Loser : use of words : could ;could not :this doesn't give us certain answer
E) Correct : This is correct choice ;BY rephrasing we can see its the best
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Last edited by gmatcracker24 on 30 Aug 2011, 11:43, edited 1 time in total.
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30 Aug 2011, 11:08
option (D)
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30 Aug 2011, 12:42
D
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30 Aug 2011, 19:40
I will go with option E.
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30 Aug 2011, 20:18
IMO E
The passage says about New Born Kangaroo - "its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can can climb from the cloaca into its mother's pouch for further development."

And then tries to relate this with the Marsupial Lion, concluding that "newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers' pouches" due to the only reason that "ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed"

The necessary assumption that connects the evidence to the conclusion is that there is indeed SOME reason for newborn marsupial lions to have developed forelimbs. If there is no reason for this, then the conclusion that the reason for lions' developed forelimbs is the same as the reason for kangaroos' falls apart and this reason can't apply.

So E is correct because it states that newborn marsupial lion's have only their forelegs developed because this of use to the marsupial lions. that's is why there is a reason for the developed forelimbs. This is the assumption that the argument depends , so IMO E is correct.
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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2011, 02:39
Evidences stated in the argument:

1. Joey is born after short gestation period
2. Joey's hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are.
3. The purpose of (2) is so it can climb into mother's pouch
4. Marsupial lions were born with only forelimbs developed

Argument implies:
"only lion's forelimbs were developed" ==> (implies) further development needed

Conclusion:
Hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must have needed to climb into mother's pouches.

A. Nothing is mentioned about the gestation period of lion; We dont know if it is short or long. So "all animals" are born after short gestation period is not valid.

B. Nothing mentioned about the usage of hind limbs vs. forelimbs of lion in premises.

C. No discussion about paleontologist in the passage.

D. That newborn lions climbed into mother's pouches is conclusion. They had forelimbs developed at birth is evidence.There is no assumption in this answer choice.

E. This connects the evidence of developed forelimbs of joey with that of lion and ties to the conclusion that lions used these forelimbs to climb into mother's pouches. The assumption here is "what is the use of developed forelimbs if not needed to climb into mother's pouch". Hence this is the correct answer.
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31 Aug 2011, 02:53
E
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31 Aug 2011, 06:09
E
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31 Aug 2011, 07:03
Hi its D

Because in D it is clearly mentioned that if the Kangarro did not develop forelimbs then it wouldn't have climb to mother's pouch....But in the paragraph it is mentioned that the kangaroo which has forelimbs developed will be able to climb to mother's pouch..

So i will go with D
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31 Aug 2011, 08:09
Premise 1. A newborn kangaroo, or joey, is born after a short gestation period of only 39 days.

Premise 2. At this stage, the joey’s hind limbs are not well developed, but its forelimbs are well developed, so that it can can climb from the cloaca into its mother’s pouch for further development.

Premise 3. The recent discovery that ancient marsupial lions were also born with only their forelimbs developed

Conclusion 1. The newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches

As concluded, the newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers' pouches.....no problem so far.....but why premise 3. will support conclusion 1.
Premise 3. will only support conclusion if Well developed forelimbs would have been more advantageous to ancient marsupial lions than well developed hind limbs would have been.
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Test Description_______Date____Total___Quant_____ Verbal
GMAT PREP1_____________________610
GMAX online test 1____29.07.2011__540_____43________19
MGMAT CAT 1_________03.09.2011__580____42________28
MGMAT CAT 2_________02.10.2011__690____48________36
GMAX online test 2_____16.10.2011__640____48________32
MGMAT CAT 3_________23.11.2011__670____47________34
Veritas free CAT______ 31.10.2011___630___ 46________33
MGMAT CAT 4_________06.11.2011__690____48________36
MGMAT CAT 5_________13.11.2011__660____46________34
MGMAT CAT 6_________19.11.2011__680____51________33
GMAT PREP2__________23.11.2011__680
GMAT Exam___________24.11.2011__690____50________34

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01 Sep 2011, 05:29
hypothesis that newborn marsupial lions must also have needed to climb into their mothers’ pouches.-

- Asumptions must connect the dots between developed forelimbs at birth and the need to climb into mothers’ pouches. Now lets scan the answers one by one:

A- Way to general-use of "All". moreever some underdeveloped parts for all animals do not help us in connecting the dots!
B- It does not matter to us in the given context the advantage of developed forelimbs over developed hind. Again it does not help us to connect the equation as mentioned above.
C-Again a non consequential answer- finding evidence by paleontologists is not much of use to fill the gap in reasoning that how does developed forelimbs must have been in order to help marsupial lions to climb into their mothers’ pouches.
D- Seems all right and fills the gap in the reasoning - this shows that developed forelimbs at the time of birth was essential to the Newborn marsupial lions to crawl into their mothers’ pouches and without their developed forelimbs at birth it would not have been possible for the Newborns to crawl into their mothers’ pouches.
E-Nothing wrong with this answer, infact second best answer. D is better than E, because E is too general in emphasizing the use of developed forelimbs at birth. We are not discussing about "any use" but whether developed forelimbs -> requirement of crawling into mother's pouches!

Retrospecting all the above choices- A, B, and C were not at all addressing the issue at hand. It was a close call between D and E, but since D gives specific use of developed forelimbs: I would pick D over E.

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01 Sep 2011, 09:35
E
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01 Sep 2011, 10:04
The answer is a close call between B and E. But i will go with asnwer choice E. The premise for the conclusion is that at birth the lions had developed forelimbs just as the kangaroo had at birth. So the lions must also use the forelimbs to climb into their mother's pouches. The argument assumes that it cannot be possible for the forelimbs to be developed at birth of lions for no valid reason. It is very much possible that the development could have taken place for no reason at all. Therefore, the argument rests on this assumption.
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01 Sep 2011, 10:06
I would go with option E

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Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2011, 10:31
Answr is D
Re: Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests   [#permalink] 01 Sep 2011, 10:31

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# Knewton Challenge: Win Knewton Shirt and GMAT Club Tests

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