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# Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has

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Senior Manager
Joined: 29 Oct 2016
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2017, 06:17
sayantanc2k wrote:
sleepynut wrote:
Hi all,

It seems like we have two different questions getting merged under the same thread :

1)Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

I will go with E for this version. "Because of" requires noun,thus the use of "make" is not appropriate.
Option D is out because we have several items that make studying the emperor penguin hard.
Just one question,"making" modifies only the last item of the list or the whole list?
I guess it is for only the last item.Comma is required to modifies the whole list.

2)Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

Presuming the underlined portion cover "of",I will go with C for this version.Option A and B are out since "because of" require noun.The use of "make" is inappropriate.Option D and E are out since "because" requires clause.

No, it is not. The original poster messed up the underlined portion. I rectified the same some time back, and hence you see the difference.

(Note that if the beginning portions or the end portions are same for all the five options, they should NOT have been underlined in the first place - there MUST be differece in at least one option at the beginning and the same is true for the end.)

Ohh!! sorry for the confusion.My bad!!
I think the modified question will have something written underneath like "last edited by".Well,this may not the case for this question.

In this question there are 4 impediments to the study of emperor king penguin.Let's name them as P,Q,R and S.
In the construction of P,Q,R and S making.....
Is the modifier applied to only the last item of this list?
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2017, 06:43
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2017, 11:32
mbaprep2017 wrote:

E is alright. Please refer to this post for explanation:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/knowledge-of ... l#p1768488
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2017, 02:49
Correct option is C. Perfect parallel structure. In E, the word making is modifying Billzards which is wrong.
I really want to know the source of these questions.
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2017, 03:23
In comparison between C and E ,
C. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
Use of "make" gives sense that only last item of the list is making certain things
E. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

"Verb+ing" form modifies a clause so gives clear meaning that complete list is the cause.
WaterFlowsUp Abhishek009 mikemcgarry
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2017, 19:16
tinashine20 wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

I concur with answer E. While I can't explain it in technical terms it may help to think of the answer in the following way:

Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of:
1. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit,
2. round-the-clock darkness, and
3. frequent sudden blizzards -- making the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter

Answer C only makes sense when you focus on the very end of the sentence without regard for the framework that the beginning establishes.
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2017, 22:17
tinashine20 wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

Hi

Can someone explain me the use of "Frequent" and "Frequently" here.
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2017, 09:33
has been gained slowly because of high winds= PROGRESSIVE TENSE
MAKING - CORRECT
HENCE E AND NOT C
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2017, 22:38
tinashine20 wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

This is an example of parallelism. Because of A, B, and C <blah blah>. Round the clock darknes is parallel with high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit. We don't need a verb make but require a participle making. DOne!
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Re: Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2017, 23:39
daagh wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

This is the edited format; without editing, it will be pointless to attempt to solve the question without the edited version.
1. First, ‘'because of ' is a prepositional phrase. Hence, a verb would not suit the context. A and B are out.

2. On the contrary, because is a subordinate conjunction. A present participle such as ‘making’ would make the sentence verbless and a fragment. Therefore, D and E are out.

3. The remaining C is the final winner. The wrong combinations are highlighted below.

A. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make -- correct

D. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

Hello Sir,

Please excuse me if i am wrong but if we choose C will it not be joining 2 independent clauses with a 'comma' because of the verb 'make'? Whereas in E, the helping verb 'making' creates a dependent clause which can be joined with an independent clause. Or am i missing something here?

Thanks.
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Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2017, 01:58
tinashine20 wrote:
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. the fact of round-the-clock darkness and frequently sudden blizzards make
B. round-the-clock darkness, with frequently sudden blizzards, make
C. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards make
D. the fact of round-the-clock darkness, with frequent sudden blizzards, making
E. round-the-clock darkness, and frequent sudden blizzards making

The main split of the sentence is the list of causes that make it difficult to study the behavior of emperor penguin .
The correct should be like X,Y,and Z

A it is wordy because of the" phrase the fact of round-the-clock darkness " and we need adjective here so frequently is wrong
B the list is improper we need and to connect the last item in the list of causes .
C wrong as we do not have proper subject of the verb make .This makes the sentence a run on Notice that the causes are all in prepositional phrase so they can not be the subject of the sentence .
D "the fact of round-the-clock darkness" again use of with is wrong
E correct -list is proper and we have verb-ing modifier thus the subject mistake of the original is rectified.
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Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has  [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2017, 05:26
Knowledge of the winter behaviour of emperor penguins has been gained slowly because of high winds, temperatures around minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit, ---- round-the-clock darkness ---- sudden blizzards ---- the Antarctic habitats of the emperors dangerous places for humans in winter.

A. the fact of / and frequently / make
B. - / , with frequently / , make
C. - / , and frequent / make
D. the fact of / , with frequent / , making
E. - / , and frequent / making

I slightly modified the question so as to see the differing parts better.

1- "the fact of" causes a parallelism issue.

2- Unlike "and", "with" links "sudden blizzards" to "round-the-clock-darkness" with no justification.

3- A comma is needed before "and" (if there are more than two things in a row, a comma and a conjunction (and) is needed before the last one)

4- "frequently" modifies "sudden" whereas "frequent" modifies "blizzards" and we want to modify "blizzards", not "sudden".

5- "make" would be correct if the conjunction "because", not because of", were used.

6- A comma before "making" causes the part after the comma to modify the whole sentence, which is not what we want to do. I do not agree with the view that "making" modifies only "sudden blizzards". The phrase is "because of X, Y, and Z('s) DOING something", not "because of X, Y, and Z('s), DOING something".

Any comment on my understanding is highly appreciated.
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