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Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was

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Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was sterilized by autoclaving, then shredded. This process generated a large quantity of unusable material that ended up in a landfill. In order to reduce its trash this year to half of last year’s total, the hospital has updated its waste removal practices. This year, it will autoclave all waste and then incinerate all non-plastic medical waste. This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.

Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim?

A. This year, the hospital will incinerate all possible materials.

B. The total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year will be no greater than that generated last year.

C. The waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year

D. Medical waste generated by County Hospital will contain a larger proportion of non-plastic waste this year than it did last year.

E. Separating plastic from non-plastic waste will cost the hospital half of what it cost last year to send the waste to landfills.



Need your help. Why is it not B but C. shred word is not mentioned in the second process. Any expert comments?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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sujit2k7 wrote:
Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was sterilized by autoclaving, then shredded. This process generated a large quantity of unusable material that ended up in a landfill. In order to reduce its trash this year to half of last year’s total, the hospital has updated its waste removal practices. This year, it will autoclave all waste and then incinerate all non-plastic medical waste. This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.

Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim?

A. This year, the hospital will incinerate all possible materials.

B. The total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year will be no greater than that generated last year.

C. The waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year

D. Medical waste generated by County Hospital will contain a larger proportion of non-plastic waste this year than it did last year.

E. Separating plastic from non-plastic waste will cost the hospital half of what it cost last year to send the waste to landfills.



Need your help. Why is it not B but C. shred word is not mentioned in the second process. Any expert comments?


Responding to a pm:
There are two different things here: 'total waste' and 'waste that is shredded'

Last year, all the waste was shredded and sent to a landfill.
This year, it will incinerate some waste (i.e. burn it so nothing will be left to send to a landfill except some ash perhaps!) and shred the rest (which will be sent to a landfill). It is implied that the rest will be shredded and sent to a landfill even if they haven't mentioned it as such since the last sentence says "This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half. " It means the waste that is not incinerated (i.e. plastic waste) will still be shredded and send to the landfill.

The aim is to decrease the waste sent to landfill by half. The shredded waste is sent to the landfill. This means that the waste shredded this year should be less than the waste shredded last year. Hence (C) is correct.

(B) need not be correct. Even if the total waste this year is more, it is possible that most of it is non plastic and hence is incinerated. It is still possible that the waste sent to the landfill this year is half of last year's.
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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2012, 01:22
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
sujit2k7 wrote:
Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was sterilized by autoclaving, then shredded. This process generated a large quantity of unusable material that ended up in a landfill. In order to reduce its trash this year to half of last year’s total, the hospital has updated its waste removal practices. This year, it will autoclave all waste and then incinerate all non-plastic medical waste. This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.

Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim?

A. This year, the hospital will incinerate all possible materials.

B. The total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year will be no greater than that generated last year.

C. The waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year

D. Medical waste generated by County Hospital will contain a larger proportion of non-plastic waste this year than it did last year.

E. Separating plastic from non-plastic waste will cost the hospital half of what it cost last year to send the waste to landfills.



Need your help. Why is it not B but C. shred word is not mentioned in the second process. Any expert comments?


Responding to a pm:
There are two different things here: 'total waste' and 'waste that is shredded'

Last year, all the waste was shredded and sent to a landfill.
This year, it will incinerate some waste (i.e. burn it so nothing will be left to send to a landfill except some ash perhaps!) and shred the rest (which will be sent to a landfill). It is implied that the rest will be shredded and sent to a landfill even if they haven't mentioned it as such since the last sentence says "This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half. " It means the waste that is not incinerated (i.e. plastic waste) will still be shredded and send to the landfill.

The aim is to decrease the waste sent to landfill by half. The shredded waste is sent to the landfill. This means that the waste shredded this year should be less than the waste shredded last year. Hence (C) is correct.

(B) need not be correct. Even if the total waste this year is more, it is possible that most of it is non plastic and hence is incinerated. It is still possible that the waste sent to the landfill this year is half of last year's.


Hi Karishma

Option C states that "the waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year". Does not this imply that the weight of waste can be equal or less but not more than last year. If it is equal the hospital wont be able to reduce its waste by half.

I find option B (more) correct than C. Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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getgyan wrote:


Hi Karishma

Option C states that "the waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year". Does not this imply that the weight of waste can be equal or less but not more than last year. If it is equal the hospital wont be able to reduce its waste by half.

I find option B (more) correct than C. Please correct me if I am wrong.


Look at the question stem: "Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim?"

It is a kind of 'must be true' question. Which of the following is required...

The aim of the hospital is that the weight of the shredded waste this year should be half of the weight of shredded waste last year. For this to happen, it is necessary that the weight of the shredded weight this year be less than the weight of the shredded waste last year.
It is something like 'if I want T to be half of L, it is necessary that T must be less than L' - It is necessary, not sufficient.

Hence option (C) is correct.

As for B, we don't necessarily need it to be true.
"The total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year will be no greater than that generated last year."

Look at the following scenario:
Last year: Total waste - 100 ton, shredded waste - 100 ton
This year: Total waste 110 ton, incinerated waste - 60 ton, shredded waste - 50 ton
Hence the aim can still be met even if the total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year is greater than that generated last year.
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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2012, 01:09
It makes sense now. Thanks Karishma. :)
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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2012, 01:40
Responding to a pm:

Yes, it is not mentioned that this year, the plastic waste will be shredded but it is kind of implied, isn't it? Shredded waste is sent to landfill. To halve the waste sent to landfill, the shredded waste must be halved. They have just told you how they will halve it - by incinerating the non plastic waste. Isn't it implied that the plastic waste will still be shredded and sent to the landfill?
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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2012, 02:02
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Responding to a pm:

Yes, it is not mentioned that this year, the plastic waste will be shredded but it is kind of implied, isn't it? Shredded waste is sent to landfill. To halve the waste sent to landfill, the shredded waste must be halved. They have just told you how they will halve it - by incinerating the non plastic waste. Isn't it implied that the plastic waste will still be shredded and sent to the landfill?


I think you are vey true as it is mentioned that they are going to reduce the trash hence trash = shreded waste
but i think this is a grey area in gmat where the inexpeirenced test takers can be foxed
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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2015, 07:22
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
sujit2k7 wrote:
Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was sterilized by autoclaving, then shredded. This process generated a large quantity of unusable material that ended up in a landfill. In order to reduce its trash this year to half of last year’s total, the hospital has updated its waste removal practices. This year, it will autoclave all waste and then incinerate all non-plastic medical waste. This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.

Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim?

A. This year, the hospital will incinerate all possible materials.

B. The total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year will be no greater than that generated last year.

C. The waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year

D. Medical waste generated by County Hospital will contain a larger proportion of non-plastic waste this year than it did last year.

E. Separating plastic from non-plastic waste will cost the hospital half of what it cost last year to send the waste to landfills.



Need your help. Why is it not B but C. shred word is not mentioned in the second process. Any expert comments?


Responding to a pm:
There are two different things here: 'total waste' and 'waste that is shredded'

Last year, all the waste was shredded and sent to a landfill.
This year, it will incinerate some waste (i.e. burn it so nothing will be left to send to a landfill except some ash perhaps!) and shred the rest (which will be sent to a landfill). It is implied that the rest will be shredded and sent to a landfill even if they haven't mentioned it as such since the last sentence says "This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half. " It means the waste that is not incinerated (i.e. plastic waste) will still be shredded and send to the landfill.

The aim is to decrease the waste sent to landfill by half. The shredded waste is sent to the landfill. This means that the waste shredded this year should be less than the waste shredded last year. Hence (C) is correct.

(B) need not be correct. Even if the total waste this year is more, it is possible that most of it is non plastic and hence is incinerated. It is still possible that the waste sent to the landfill this year is half of last year's.


While I am sure option B is wrong. Why option D is wrong?
Let's assume this scenario:
Last year: 100 tons of all materials shredded
This year: 90 tons shredded and 10 tons incinerated (non-plastic).
in this example, option C is satisfied (thinking about it, most examples will be satisfied). but yet, we can only decrease the waste sent to landfill by 10%.

But option D is saying that this year non-plastic will have larger proportion (50% and above) which is more correct to say to reduce it by half. No matter how varied the weight of the materials, option D will decrease the waste sent to landfill by 50%.

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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2015, 19:23
antztheman wrote:

While I am sure option B is wrong. Why option D is wrong?
Let's assume this scenario:
Last year: 100 tons of all materials shredded
This year: 90 tons shredded and 10 tons incinerated (non-plastic).
in this example, option C is satisfied (thinking about it, most examples will be satisfied). but yet, we can only decrease the waste sent to landfill by 10%.

But option D is saying that this year non-plastic will have larger proportion (50% and above) which is more correct to say to reduce it by half. No matter how varied the weight of the materials, option D will decrease the waste sent to landfill by 50%.


(D) says "WAste will contain a larger proportion of non-plastic waste this year than it did last year."

This needn't be true. Non plastic waste should be more than 50% for the plan to work but what if it was already more than 50% last year? The comparison is with last year and hence it needn't be true. If last year plastic waste was say 60%, if it is 60% this year too, plan may still work. (D) is not necessary for the plan to work.
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#Top150 CR: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was sterilized by autoclaving, then shredded. This process generated a large quantity of unusable material that ended up in a landfill. In order to reduce its trash this year to half of last year’s total, the hospital has updated its waste removal practices. This year, it will autoclave all waste and then incinerate all non-plastic medical waste. This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.

Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim?

A. This year, the hospital will incinerate all possible materials.

B. The total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year will be no greater than that generated last year.

C. The waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year

D. Medical waste generated by County Hospital will contain a larger proportion of non-plastic waste this year than it did last year.

E. Separating plastic from non-plastic waste will cost the hospital half of what it cost last year to send the waste to landfills.
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Re: #Top150 CR: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2015, 11:47
IMO: C.
If the weight of the shredded waste this year is more than shredded waste last year the number of tons of waste send to landfills will not decrease.

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Re: #Top150 CR: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2015, 12:23
Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was sterilized by autoclaving, then shredded. This process generated a large quantity of unusable material that ended up in a landfill. In order to reduce its trash this year to half of last year’s total, the hospital has updated its waste removal practices. This year, it will autoclave all waste and then incinerate all non-plastic medical waste. This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.

Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim?

A. This year, the hospital will incinerate all possible materials..........OUT OF SCOPE AS THIS CAN BE ASSUMED BUT NOT NEEDED TO ACHIEVE THE AIM.

B. The total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year will be no greater than that generated last year............TOTAL QUANTITY DOES NOT MATTER AS IT CAN OR CANNOT BE GREATLY REDUCED TO MINIMAL AMOUNT OF LANDFILL.

C. The waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year
.....CORRECT CHOICE

D. Medical waste generated by County Hospital will contain a larger proportion of non-plastic waste this year than it did last year................STILL IT CAN BE MORE THAN THE QUANTITY OF LAST YEAR.

E. Separating plastic from non-plastic waste will cost the hospital half of what it cost last year to send the waste to landfills.........OFS
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Re: #Top150 CR: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2015, 06:47
Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was sterilized by autoclaving, then shredded. This process generated a large quantity of unusable material that ended up in a landfill. In order to reduce its trash this year to half of last year’s total, the hospital has updated its waste removal practices. This year, it will autoclave all waste and then incinerate all non-plastic medical waste. This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.

The argument assumes that

1. The alternate solution i.e. autoclave + incineration of non-plastic waste will work for the problem.

2. Shredding is not required this time as it is not giving the desired result.

Based on the above two assumption, we can chose option C. even though, Option C is not fully relevant to the case. Option C says that shredding is still performed and this is really not the case.

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Re: #Top150 CR: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2016, 12:32
Hi Experts
Stimulus mentions:This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.
But in OA C
we have possibility that the number of tons can be more than half as it only mentions shredded waste is less than last years.

this is not fully correct in reference to question stem"Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim? "

Please shed some light here.

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#Top150 CR: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2016, 03:33
kanigmat011 wrote:
Hi Experts
Stimulus mentions:This should decrease the number of tons of waste sent to the landfill by half.
But in OA C
we have possibility that the number of tons can be more than half as it only mentions shredded waste is less than last years.

this is not fully correct in reference to question stem"Which of the following is required for the updated waste removal program to achieve its aim? "

Please shed some light here.



Hi kanigmat011

I think the question is just asking for a necessary condition and not a sufficient condition here. Which choice is required to achieve the aim? The aim is not guaranteed.

My analysis about B, C, and D: (A and E are too vague)

B. The total quantity of medical waste generated at the hospital this year will be no greater than that generated last year. - We can violate this. Still it is possible to reduce the waste to half. E.g. last year: 100 ton total waste; shredded waste 80 ton. This year: 150 ton total waste; shredded waste 60 ton. So, this is not required.

C. The waste shredded this year will weigh no more than the waste shredded last year - This is required (NOT guaranteed). Shredded waste directly goes to landfill.

D. Medical waste generated by County Hospital will contain a larger proportion of non-plastic waste this year than it did last year - We can violate this too. E.g. last year: 100 ton total waste; Non-plastic waste 80 ton(80%). No incineration, so all 100 ton goes to shred/landfill. This year: 200 ton total waste; Non-plastic waste 150 ton(75%). So, basically 50 ton (half) goes to landfill.

Hope it helps.

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Re: #Top150 CR: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2016, 14:20
in case of option C if "the weight of the waste shredded has not increased than the weight of waste shredded last year"
if we negate the following then it states that weight has infact increased as compared to last year which breaks the conclusion and tells that the given condition is a necessary condition for the conclusion to hold true.

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Re: #Top150 CR: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2016, 22:04
HI mikemcgarry Question is categorised as Assumption, which is necessary condition.
I have doubt about the OA.
Process 1 :- x+y here y is shredding of all waste , which may include plastic and non plastic
Process 2 :- x +z here z is incinerate that converts the waste into ash etc. Specifically given incineration of non plastic.
In C what if waste weight is almost double this year but 90% of the material this has non plastic. Answer still strengthens.

Please help if this is right question to be practised or i am missing something.

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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 06:12
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Re: Last year, all of the medical waste at County Hospital was   [#permalink] 13 Jul 2016, 06:12

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