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# Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services

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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2004, 05:52
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61% (02:30) correct 39% (01:46) wrong based on 4467 sessions

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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Engr2012 on 02 Aug 2015, 11:40, edited 3 times in total.
If you have any questions
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2005, 08:35
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I'll go with (D)

Examining the stem:

Last year:
All refuse (collected in N truckloads) --- incinerated ---> residue ash

This year:
All refuse --- separate for recycling ---> refuse to be incinerated (resulting in half the previous year's truckloads N/2) ---- incinerate this left over refuse ----> residue ash (which is half the last year's quantity)

Therefore, this year only half the amount of residue is being incinerated. So, unless each truckload generates less residue ash than it did last year, the objective cannot be achieved.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2009, 23:58
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ISBtarget wrote:
(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it
cost last year to dispose of the residual ash. cost out of scope
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the
refuse incinerated last year. Ok. The program is to halve the number of trucks of refuse to be incinerated. Target is to halve the amount of ash. So, we have:
Last year (no of tracks)*(amount of ash per truck) = (total ash).
This year 1/2(no of trucks)*(amount of ash per truck) = 1/2(total ash)
Clearly, in order it to be true, amount of ash per truck have to remain, what D says

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that
collected last year. Looks tempting. But in fact it does not matter how many refuse is collected this year. The program is to halve the number of trucks of refuse to be incinerated. For example: Last year Total refuse = 100 kg, number of trucks = 10; This year: Total refuse = 200 kg, but the number of trucks = 5, other refuse goes to recycling.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2013, 04:25
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Expert's post
ratinarace wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Can someone please explain C vs D Vs E

Hi ratinarace,

First, lets determine the question type. The answer choice has to be true for the conclusion to be true i.e. it is an assumption question.

Conclusion is that Shelbyville city service will achieve its aim.

In simple words the stimulus says that last year the incinerator produced a lot of residual ash. This year they want to reduce the residual ash by cutting to half the the refuse sent to the incinerator.

In more simpler words the author is assuming: reduction in refuse to half = reduction in residual ash to half .

If an answer choice states this assumption, we've got the answer. Even if you have not got this assumption initially you can run through the answer choices and check which one would make the conclusion/ aim true for sure.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

Does this has to be true for the conclusion to be true. If recyclable material is high then the incinerated material will be low, but it could still generate more ash per unit of refuse. So, it is not mandatory for (C) to be true for conclusion to be true.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

Does this has to be true for the conclusion to be true. Yes, lets see why;

the amount of ash per unit refuse is less than or equal to the amount of as per unit last year. Therefore, the incinerator would generate less than or equal to the amount of residual ash produced last year. This has to be true for the conclusion to be true. So, it is our answer.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

This need not be true for the conclusion to be true. The quantity of refuse could be the same or greater but the proportion of waste that is incinerated be less than what it was last year. The Shelbyville city service could still achieve its aim without (E) being true.

Hope that helps,

Vercules
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2004, 09:55
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Will for D as well. I debated with myself whether A was right. However I discounted A because I reasoned that we don't have any info on how much ash the recyclable materials would produce. Also, I think the very reason why the recyclable materials are being separated because they are NOT to be incinerated. So there's no reason to assume they would be.

Can somebody enlighten me if this reasoning for eliminating A sounds ok?

Thanks
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2016, 02:40
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Top Contributor
ashutoshsh wrote:
maaverick wrote:
I'll go with (D)

Examining the stem:

Last year:
All refuse (collected in N truckloads) --- incinerated ---> residue ash

This year:
All refuse --- separate for recycling ---> refuse to be incinerated (resulting in half the previous year's truckloads N/2) ---- incinerate this left over refuse ----> residue ash (which is half the last year's quantity)

Therefore, this year only half the amount of residue is being incinerated. So, unless each truckload generates less residue ash than it did last year, the objective cannot be achieved.

Hi!
thanks for such good explanation but i am sorry i still don't understand what makes D right. Like C, D says that Residual will be no more than it was last year. But how can we conclude that residual will be half of what it was last year.

Hello, ashutoshsh

I think this question is tricky because of a lot of details that we need pay attention to.

Let's rephrase this argument and add some figures for example:

Last year we have 100 trucks with refuse
Incineration generates for example 500 tonnes (5 tonnes per truck) residual ash
In order to lessen residual ash in two times city will lessen number of trucks in two times,
so it will be 50 trucks.

But who can guarantee that residual ash from this 50 trucks will be equal to 250 tonnes (5 tonnes per truck)?

C is very close, but information that "Refuse will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials" doesn't absolutely guaranty that this refuse will generate less volume of residual ash. It is possible and if D is not present as an answer it can be a winner,

but D is much better: "The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload" because it clearly states what we need to know.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2006, 23:17
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A point which I want to add is that for such questions you always need to compare like for like.

For eg: in this question reducing the ash by half necessarily does not mean reducing the no. of truck loads. It would be wrong to assume that 1/2 truckload = 1/2 ash
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2009, 16:40
1
KUDOS
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Please explain in a detailed reasoning.Nice explanation will be appreciated with kudos ) . OA after explanations.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2009, 06:23
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perfectstranger wrote:
sher676 Could you please explain why E is wrong?

OA :
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

E is not an essential assumption in this question. Best way to test is to try to nullify the argument and see if the premise holds.

If the total quantity of truckload is equal to or greater than last year's, we can still have a case where refuse collected does not translate to ash. What if the the city decides not to incinerate some of the refuse and keep it. That would mean that ash has lessened but the refuse has not.
In a nutshell this argument is open to debate. Usually in questions like these go for the ones which attack the question as directly as possible.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2009, 23:42
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If we choose D, what if the number of trucks goes up? Even if the amount of trash per truck remains the same, if the number increases dramatically, this will increase the amount of total ash huh?
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2009, 14:14
1
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large
quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of
last year’s total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling
enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year’s number.
Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?
(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it
cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it
did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the
refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that
collected last year.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2013, 08:08
1
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Need explanation
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2013, 10:26
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last-year-all-refuse-collected-by-shelbyville-city-services-9971.html

last-year-all-refuse-collected-by-shelbyville-city-services-82740.html#p620110

try to use the search button or to copy and past the text of the stimulus on google. if the question was discussed, certainly, will be the first result that will point out to gmatclub.

Thanks.

regards.

The post is locked
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 00:31
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SUNGMAT710 wrote:
E is as good an answer.

Is not E be required to achieve the aim?
I think E fits in correctly.

ACTION :
SHELL WANTS TO REDUCE ASH TO HALF.
HOW HE IS GOING TO AS PER THE ARGUMENT?
SHELL is going to reduce the number of truck loads of GARBAGE to HALF.

Means if initilally there are 100 trucks of GARBAGE. then they are going to reduce it to 50 TRUCKS.===>THIS IS GIVEN IN THE ARGUMENT THAT THEY ARE GOING TO DO SO.

OPTION (E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.
this doesnt affects because if there are more garbage generated SHELL is going to to separate GARBAGE SUCH THAT TRUCKLOAD IS HALF.

hope this helps.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2004, 11:35
I think B is the answer.

If the idea is to achieve the goal, then the cost has to remain the same while reducing the amount of residue ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last yearâ€™s total. If the cost in doing so goes up enormously, I donot think that it is a success.

B exactly does what is required.If B is true, then less than half for separation of the recyclable materials and the remaining for the incinerating. So,the cost remains the same in both the cases and the aim is achieved.

A - 'not incinerating' does not make sense
C - 'refuse'.Idea is not to achieve the goal somehow.
D - If both residues(last year's and this year's) are equal, the the aim is not achieved.
E - does not talk about 'recycling'

Awaiting OA. Do correct me too if necessary.

mba4me wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residue ash. In order to reduce the amount of residue ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last yearâ€™s total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last yearâ€™s number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

A. This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
B. Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residue ash.
C. Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
D. The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residue ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
E. The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2004, 11:58
dwivedys, i think you are right. I got stuck with 'A' but there is no way of knowing how much. THe only other one that makes sense is D. The cost is out of scope according to me...their goal is to reduce the amt. of ash...without any attention to cost.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2004, 16:23
I think it's C
You need to have more refuse to recycle to be able reduce residue ash

B) all we need is reduce the residue ash nothwithstanding the cost involved
D) even though the residue ash/truck load is doubled, we could still recycle 80% of refuse and the goal would be achieved
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2004, 19:22
Program's success relies heavily on the materials that are incinerated. There must be at least half that can be recylced.

A. This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
This doesn't helps us to know if this amount of recycled material is at least half of the refuse. A is out.

B. Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated
will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose
of the residue ash.

Cost is not a concern here. B is out.

C. Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

Exactly what we needed. C it is.

D. The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residue ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

That still doesn't reduce the residual ash by 1/2. Also, it doesn't say that reduction is achieved through recycling some of the refuse. D is out.

E. The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Same thing as D. E is out.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2004, 20:37
Yes.. B is clearly out of scope as 'cost' was never a concern at all in the stem.

mallelac wrote:
I think B is the answer.

If the idea is to achieve the goal, then the cost has to remain the same while reducing the amount of residue ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year’s total. If the cost in doing so goes up enormously, I donot think that it is a success.

B exactly does what is required.If B is true, then less than half for separation of the recyclable materials and the remaining for the incinerating. So,the cost remains the same in both the cases and the aim is achieved.

A - 'not incinerating' does not make sense
C - 'refuse'.Idea is not to achieve the goal somehow.
D - If both residues(last year's and this year's) are equal, the the aim is not achieved.
E - does not talk about 'recycling'

Awaiting OA. Do correct me too if necessary.

mba4me wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residue ash. In order to reduce the amount of residue ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year’s total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year’s number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

A. This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
B. Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residue ash.
C. Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
D. The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residue ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
E. The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2004, 03:52
D for me too.

B deals with scope and is out of scope, trying to confuse us withthe 1/2 ratio
C we do not know what was this recyclable proportion last year so it is impossible to conclude anything. If the stem would have been : recyclable ratio increased so that half of what was burnt is now recyclable it would be better...
Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services   [#permalink] 21 Sep 2004, 03:52

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