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# Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine

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Manager
Joined: 09 Sep 2004
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2004, 04:52
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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Last edited by hazelnut on 24 Jun 2017, 03:22, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2013, 23:31
1
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SUNGMAT710 wrote:
E is as good an answer.

Is not E be required to achieve the aim?
I think E fits in correctly.

ACTION :
SHELL WANTS TO REDUCE ASH TO HALF.
HOW HE IS GOING TO AS PER THE ARGUMENT?
SHELL is going to reduce the number of truck loads of GARBAGE to HALF.

Means if initilally there are 100 trucks of GARBAGE. then they are going to reduce it to 50 TRUCKS.===>THIS IS GIVEN IN THE ARGUMENT THAT THEY ARE GOING TO DO SO.

OPTION (E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.
this doesnt affects because if there are more garbage generated SHELL is going to to separate GARBAGE SUCH THAT TRUCKLOAD IS HALF.

hope this helps.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2013, 23:49
blueseas wrote:
SUNGMAT710 wrote:
E is as good an answer.

Is not E be required to achieve the aim?
I think E fits in correctly.

ACTION :
SHELL WANTS TO REDUCE ASH TO HALF.
HOW HE IS GOING TO AS PER THE ARGUMENT?
SHELL is going to reduce the number of truck loads of GARBAGE to HALF.

Means if initilally there are 100 trucks of GARBAGE. then they are going to reduce it to 50 TRUCKS.===>THIS IS GIVEN IN THE ARGUMENT THAT THEY ARE GOING TO DO SO.

OPTION (E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.
this doesnt affects because if there are more garbage generated SHELL is going to to separate GARBAGE SUCH THAT TRUCKLOAD IS HALF.

hope this helps.

Thanks!!!!!!

hmmmm..
if such questions appear in GMAT, it would take more than 2 min to answer and many a time we would have marked the wrong answer thinking it to be right and moved on...
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 12:50
Thanks Chiranjeev.. I think i missed the portion of the question that talks about reducing the ash to half of last year.In that case, i think only D makes sense.
I have to say your analogy makes it super clear. Thanks again.

I dont know how to give kudos on my phone
egmat wrote:
pavan2185 wrote:
Hi ,

I am not able to get why choice D is the correct answer. I was completely stumped.

Below is my analysis.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.

Initial thought:
Completely lost among most of the choices and chose this just for the sake of choosing an answer since I had already taken about 4 mins.

Later evaluation.

This choice says no materials will be incinerated. The target is not to completely avoid incineration. Only portion of it is to be recycled. This is not the requirement / Assumption clearly.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

OFS. Cost is not the concern.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

The proportion of recyclable material to refuse is relevant but not the proportion of the recyclable materials between the two years.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

Initial thought: I thought the Ash per truck load is not relevant since we care about the number of truck loads of refuse to be burnt.

Later revleation.

This is the correct answer. However, is a truck load of refuse to be burnt equal to truck load of ash? I am not able to understand this properly.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

The total quantity is not relevant. OFS. We are concerned with the number of truck loads of trash.

Hi Pavan,

Let me explain option D with an analogy here.

Let's suppose if a doctor makes the following suggestion to you.

You need to reduce your calorie intake to half the current levels. Therefore, you should eat half as much as you currently eat. (so if you eat say 20 units, now you should eat 10 units)

Now, for the doctor's suggestion to work (i.e. reduce calorie intake to half the current levels), you should not eat, say, oily foods which contain more calories per unit. If you do that, even though you may eat only 10 units of food but your actual calorie intake will not be half of your previous level since you are eating more oily foods now which are providing you more calories per unit.

Therefore, for doctor's suggestion to achieve its aim (reduce calorie intake to half), the amount of calories per unit of food should not increase from last year.

Do you get this?

Exactly parallel is the reasoning used in option D.

You want to reduce residual ash to half the amount. What you do is that you reduce the number of trucks to half. Would that achieve the objective.

The answer is yes but only if you don't load each truck with more residual ash than the year before.

Does this help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2013, 10:27
I ruled out A B C
Down to D and E
Selected E because it clearly mentions that the total quantity of refuse collected will be no greater than that collected last year.
Last year, all the refuse was incinerated. So if the quantity remains the same, some of the refuse will be recycled which will reduce the number of truckloads of refuse compared to last year.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2013, 07:23
Can somebody please explain why exactly is the answer choice E incorrect?

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2013, 08:23
aakrity wrote:
I ruled out A B C
Down to D and E
Selected E because it clearly mentions that the total quantity of refuse collected will be no greater than that collected last year.
Last year, all the refuse was incinerated. So if the quantity remains the same, some of the refuse will be recycled which will reduce the number of truckloads of refuse compared to last year.

Posted from my mobile device

Thank you
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2013, 18:23
Lets see what choice E states:

Quote:
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

The total quantity of ash collected is immaterial. Why!! because of the last line of the argument:

Quote:
This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

It can be inferred from the above line that regardless of the amount of refuse collected, the city services will only send half the truckloads. Hence, the amount of refuse collected does not matter. Even if 10X the refuse is collected this year, still the # of truckloads sent for incineration will be half of last year's number.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2013, 21:52
Can someone please explain why A is incorrect.

A and D are both contenders but i feel A is a better assumption than D.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2014, 16:01
I had narrowed it down to A and D but chose A. Can someone explain why A is incorrect?

Answer choice A states - "This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated".

Earlier in the stimuli, it stated that the "city will separate enough for recycling to reduce the number of truckloads". Doesn't that mean that the writers are assuming that the recyclable materials will NOT be incinerated, hence reducing the ash. If that's the case, option A is confirming that exact assumption so why is it wrong?
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2014, 08:29
Can an expert please comment on the level of difficulty of this question? I found it extremely tricky (you really have to seperate the nr of trucks verus the quantity of ash each truck produced). After writing for 2,5 hours your brain must be totally fried and hence very difficult to pick up this subtlety.....

My gut is that it is a 700 level.....can anyone confirm?
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2015, 03:08
For those who say E as right :

The quantity of refuse NEEDNOT BE less than last year .

Ash quantity is not determined by refuse (recyclable +non recyclable) , however it depends only on the quantity of non recyclable materials.

What if in a given large amount of refuse , the proportion of recyclable materials are more than non recyclable materials.Still it will produce less ash although the refuse quantity is large.

Option C is correct to me.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2015, 03:24
I tried applying the denial test to each of the options, still couldn't see any clear choice.
Aim is to reduce the ash load to half of last year. This means, if I negate these options, the aim will not be achievable for the Correct answer choice.
Which of the following is required to achieve this aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
Denial: This year some materials that the services separate for recycling will be incinerated.
Yet, this does not mean the ash load will be more than half since there is a likelyhood that the total refuse could be less than last year, and the proportion of recyclable is not low enough to make the aim unachievable. Im not assuming these things, its just that there is no data making these claims. So, the aim can still be achieved.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
[No need for denial, saving cost is not the aim]

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
Denial: Refuse collected will NOT contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year.
The aim does not depend upon this denail either. If the total refuse this year is lesser, and recyclable proportion is only slightly lesser, the ash residue can still be half. Hence, aim can still be achieved.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
Denial: The refuse incinerated this year WILL generate more residual ash per truckload this year.
This does not help either since nowhere does it state HOW much more per truckload. It could be just 0.001% more per truckload than last year. Aim can still be achieved if total refuse this year is lower and / or recyclable proportion is higher too. These are still valid possibilities since we have no data to believe any of these are wrong.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.
Denial: Total quantity of refuse collected will be greater than that collected last year.
This has no impact either since it does not say that the proportion of recyclable would remain the same. If the total refuse increases but the quantity of recyclable increases, Aim can still be achieved.

I'm just a beginner, so experts please help correct my way of thinking if I'm going wrong somewhere.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2015, 03:38
Kumarsaravana wrote:
For those who say E as right :

The quantity of refuse NEEDNOT BE less than last year .

Ash quantity is not determined by refuse (recyclable +non recyclable) , however it depends only on the quantity of non recyclable materials.

What if in a given large amount of refuse , the proportion of recyclable materials are more than non recyclable materials.Still it will produce less ash although the refuse quantity is large.

Option C is correct to me.

Hi Kumar,

C did look correct to me initially. But I would like to point out that nowhere within the passage or in the option C do we have any data stating that the total quantity of refuse will be the same as last year. Let's apply option C to test whether it is required in order for the aim to succeed.
Last year the total quantity of refuse was 100, out of which recyclable was half, i.e. 50. Ash residue generated was by 50 items.
This year quantity of total refuse is 80 out of which recyclable is LESS than half i.e. 38. Ash residue generated will still be only from the remaining 42 items.

On the other hand, C will also be incorrect in case the total quantity of refuse increases. Example: Total quantity this year is 200. Out of which 60% is recyclable i.e. 120. We still have 80 truckloads of ash generating material. Our target is only 50 trucks.

This shows C would be the correct answer ONLY if the passage or the option stated somewhere that the total quantity of refuse remains the same.
Hence, C can be true, but is NOT a must.

Last edited by four321zero on 26 Jan 2015, 04:05, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2015, 03:51
Please ignore my Deinal test post. I should have read the passage more carefully.
I think I have an answer now.

"This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number."

Enough Refuse: I think this means, that city services estimate the quantity of "enough refuse" on last year's data. This means, if they had 100 truckloads of refuse to be incinerated last year, they are aiming for only 50 truckloads (of ash generating trash) this year. For this to happen, they will separate 50 truckloads of recyclable refuse.

Now in order for the RESIDUAL ASH to be half of last year, the ash generated per truckload of incinerated material should NOT be more than last year. Because if the ash generated from these 50 trucks is more than last year, they won't achieve their aim.

Hence, D is the correct answer
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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30 May 2015, 10:44
Use numbers to unmistakably get the right answer.

Last Year (Y-1)= 100 lbs of refuse
"all refuse was incinerated" -- all 100 lbs was burned
this then "generated a large quantity of residual ash"
--let's say 80% of the refuse was residual ash
hence 80lbs of residual ash==RA(Y-1)=80

"In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total"
=1/2 the residual ash of last year = 1/2 RA(Y-1) = 1/2 (80)= 40=RA (Y=0) -- residual ash for this year
--THIS IS OUR GOAL

"This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last years"
-to make things simple say we had 100 trucks last year
T(Y-1)=100
This year we will reduce the number of truckloads filled with refuse which is to be burned by half.
- so we have half of last year's 100 truckloads of trash or 50 truckloads
1/2 T(Y-1)=1/2 100= 50= T(Y=0)
-- This is the means by which our GOAL is to be achieved

Hence the residual ash is to be reduced by half
RA(Y-1)=80 = 1/2 RA(Y-1) = 1/2 (80)= 40= RA (Y=0)
and this will be done by reducing the trucks by half
1/2 T(Y-1)=1/2 100= 50= T(Y=0)

Therefore if RA is to be reduced by half by means of reducing the truck numbers by half, then each truck "will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year"
40lbs residual ash (half of last year's) and 50 trucks (each truck weighs one lb, and .8lbs out of every lb turns to residual ash)

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2015, 23:35
D
Conclusion - city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total

This will be true only if all conditions remain the same as last yr. --- Each truckload carries same amt. of material as last yr, amount of ash left by burning/ kg is same, etc...
Only D gives this info
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2016, 20:32
mba4me wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Responding to a pm:

Argument:

Last year all refuse was incinerated.
This generated a large quantity of residual ash.
Plan: Separate for recycling refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.
Aim of the Plan: to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total.

The plan is to reduce the refuse to half of last year's.

If last year 100 truckloads were incinerated, this year only 50 should be incinerated. So even if we collect 150 truckloads this year, 100 should be separated to recycle and only 50 should be incinerated. Then the residual ash will be half of last year's.

There are some requirements for the plan to work:

- There should be at least this much recyclable stuff in the refuse collected. We must have at least 100 truckloads of recyclable stuff so that we are left with 50 truckloads to incinerate.

- Half the number of truckloads should produce half the residual ash. What if the residual ash amount depends on the kind of refuse? If certain refuse produces more ash and if that is the kind of refuse we have in 50 truckloads this year, it will produce more than half of last year's ash.

Look at the options now:

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.

This is not required. If all 150 truckloads are recyclable, we could incinerate 50 truckloads and our plan could work. It is not necessary to separate all recyclable stuff.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

Cost is irrelevant to the argument.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

Incorrect. The proportion of recyclable material compared with last year's proportion is immaterial. We don't have any data about the last year's proportion. Perhaps last year all refuse was recyclable. Then we don't need and cannot have a larger proportion. What we need is a large enough proportion of recyclable material but we don't necessarily NEED MORE THAN last year's proportion. This option is incorrect because of the comparison it makes.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

This is one of our requirements. The second one. Hence this is correct.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

This is not necessary. In our example, we assumed that this year 150 truckloads was produced against 100 truckloads of last year.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2016, 11:45
mba4me wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

It is a very logical question and I am bookmarking it because it reminds how you should always search for "only logic" in real GMAT questions!

I thought A first. But if one reads the Q correctly, it asks what is required for the plan to generate half residual than that generated last year.The solution is to half the load to be incinerated this year.The thing that will fail this arrangement is if ash residual par truckload will be more this year than last's. Twisted words but straight logic!
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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24 May 2016, 03:40
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

its a tough call between C and D (when you are under time pressure)
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

If we use negation test , negating D will make the argument fall on the face - we are saying refuse incinerated this year will not generate more ash/ truck load then Last years'
While negating C will make you think " if no. of recyclable material is not more this year than last year , lets say it is equal, what if last year they were not recycling it more seriously and this time they will recycle enough" even if they recycle enough how can we be sure that ash will be reduced to half.
thus negation test is the life saver in such situations, its like choosing between one option which while negating straight away makes the argument fall, other option after negating we have to put extra effort of thinking to make the argument fall.
above thinking was under time pressure.

what actually is the key here is the understanding between "refuse" incinerated and "ash" generated. there are refuses which may generate more ash per volume (in this case per truck load) so even if u consider option C which says no. of recyclabe materials has increased this yr than last yrs and after recycling, the incinerable material has reduced , what if that incinerable material produces more ash per volume ?? quite possible right ?? it can also be that even after reducing the no. of incinerable materials the ash generated by them is still the same.
that is reason option C doesnt hold when compared to option D, which leaves no scope for ash to be more compared to last year.
thanks
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2016, 22:10
mba4me wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Premise : 1/2 materials will be recycled leading to 1/2 no. of truckload of waste
Conclusion : Hence 1/2 ash from incineration

Assumption : There's a huge gap between truck load and ash generated. The perfect assumption is " Ash generated from materials/m3 of waste is not greater than last year"

Looking at the option only D holds true.

A is not an assumption. It says nothing about ashes produced from the material
E is a classic trap. But the question states that the city will reduce the truckload to half. So we already have the premise about it.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine   [#permalink] 06 Jun 2016, 22:10

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