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# Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,

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Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 14:02
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58% (02:44) correct 42% (01:37) wrong based on 303 sessions

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Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site, If and only if the landfill's capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachates escape into the environment, generally in unpredictable quantities, A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.

(B)If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.

(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.

Can you deny D or E?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by JarvisR on 14 Mar 2016, 05:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 14:10
E for sure
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 14:47
It is between D and E. Finally picking E.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 15:03
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I was stuck between D and E but I think E is stronger.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it. even though there are plants that are incapable of handling leachate (as it was mentioned in the last sentence), it would be presumptuous of us to assume that the leachate are actually sent to those plants. Maybe leachates are only sent to sewage plants that can handle it. We cannot say.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. as stated in the argument - "if and only if".
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 15:14
beckee529 wrote:
I was stuck between D and E but I think E is stronger.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it. even though there are plants that are incapable of handling leachate (as it was mentioned in the last sentence), it would be presumptuous of us to assume that the leachate are actually sent to those plants. Maybe leachates are only sent to sewage plants that can handle it. We cannot say.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. as stated in the argument - "if and only if".

Good analysis. I was stuck between D and E forever before figuring this out.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 16:29
I get E for this. the "if and only if" is pretty damning, so you need something equally strong.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 20:35
beckee529 wrote:
I was stuck between D and E but I think E is stronger.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it. even though there are plants that are incapable of handling leachate (as it was mentioned in the last sentence), it would be presumptuous of us to assume that the leachate are actually sent to those plants. Maybe leachates are only sent to sewage plants that can handle it. We cannot say.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. as stated in the argument - "if and only if".

Agree with beckee529...E it is.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 21:03
agree with E

D is mild and has the possibility of sewage plans not receiving leachate at all
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2007, 02:46
IF AND ONLY IFF

If you negate one, you negate the other. It's written right there.

E
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2007, 09:47
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2007, 10:04
I agree with E...but I want to play devil's advocate here for a second.

Quote:
(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.

Can we assume that it is impossible for the landfill's capacty to hold liquids to be exceeded without leachate being produced? The passage never says anything concrete to prove this.

It's implied, but can we really know for sure? Leachate develops when water permeates a landfill site....but what if a landfill site's capacity to hold liquids could be exceeded without water permeating it? maybe someone poured a whole ton of milk into the landfill. Then the landfill could exceed capacity without leachate being leaked...because it was never formed.

but D is an even weaker answer, so I'd choose E.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2007, 01:34
asaf wrote:
Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site, If and only if the landfill's capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachates escape into the environment, generally in unpredictable quantities, A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.

(B)If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.

(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.

Can you deny D or E?

Before the thread gets lost, can you please provide us with the OA? Thanks!
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2013, 10:48
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2015, 02:00
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2016, 07:39
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2016, 09:04

Remembering the definition of inference will help to get the correct answer in under 10 seconds
(i) Inference is a logical conclusion that can be drawn using one or more premises given in the argument.
(ii)Also noteworthy is to remember that an inference must never be said or written explicitly in the argument (otherwise it will become just another premise)

E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.
We can infer this from the premise in the argument. "If and only if the landfill's capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachates escape into the environment"
No leaking of leachate=Landfill still have capacity to hold leachate.

asaf wrote:
Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site, If and only if the landfill's capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachates escape into the environment, generally in unpredictable quantities, A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.

(B)If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.

(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.

Can you deny D or E?

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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 04:22
Solutions 1:-

For inference questions we must always be able to prove the answer choice by referring back to the argument. The answers are usually

(1) Paraphrase of one or more of the premises in the argument
(2) Logical conclusion from one or more premises in the argument

If and only if the landfill's capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachate escape into the environment,

E is nothing but a paraphrase of whats given in the argument i.e using (1) above

but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water

Choice D is Some landfill leachate is sent to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.Do we know that leachate has been sent to some sewage plants from whats given in the argument?? NO....

If choice D was

Some sewage treatment plants are incapable of handling the leachate sent to them.-> YES this would be a logical conclusion i.e. using (2) above
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,   [#permalink] 22 Apr 2017, 04:22
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