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# Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao

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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2019, 14:54
5
1
Time-traveling bees will be mentioned in this post. You've been warned.

Quote:
1) First of all, I could not understand the difference between Less than and In less than split in the question. The first one sounded weird, that's why I ended up choosing Answer B.

First, we never want to eliminate an answer choice because it sounds weird! More on that in this article and this video.

The distinction here is one of meaning and tense. If I begin a sentence with "In less than 35 years," the expectation is that I'll follow this modifier with an action in the future. For example, "In less than 35 years, Tim hopes to be retired and living on a houseboat off the coast of Spain." Tim's not retired yet, but in the future, presumably, he will be.

In this problem, we're talking about a past event, so "in less than" is inappropriate. However, if we get rid of the "in" we can coherently describe a past action. For example, "Less than 5 years after she learned to walk, Tanya began demanding an iPad with better memory and a phone plan with unlimited data." Here, Tanya's demands are in the past, but they're after another action in the past -- when she learned to walk.

Quote:
2) Because of the usage of "had" in the underlined portion of the sentence, it appears that migration happened before the release of African honeybees. The point is, I'm unable to visualize the events on a timeline.

Excellent question! In effect, there are three time markers in this sentence. 1) When the bees were released; 2) 35 years after the bees were released; and 3) when the bees migrated to Southern Texas. We use the past perfect "had" for action #3 because it took place before time #2, which is also in the past. Put another way, imagine that the bees were released in 1900. We know that they had migrated to Texas before 1935, which is also in the past.

Quote:
3) Why exactly is the usage of since in the answer choices incorrect? - since releasing African honeybees - seems to be at a certain point in time [ since a specific event ] .

Take another look at the entire phrase you're referring to:

"In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, their descendants..."

If you're willing to overlook the problem with the phrase "in less than 35 years," (and you shouldn't be!) there's also a modification error here. It sounds as though "releasing" is modifying "their descendants," meaning that the descendants of the bees somehow released their own ancestors! If someone wants to make a sci-fi movie about time-traveling bees that journey into the past to save their older relatives, I will certainly watch this movie, but on the GMAT, this is considered illogical, so (B) is wrong.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2019, 23:59
hello,
can someone explain the verb tense error in option c
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2019, 03:09
Bunuel, There is a typo in answer choice (E). "the" is missing here. the correct version is
(E) It took less than the 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2019, 03:16
would you please tell me more about the uses of "when" in answer choice (D)?
what are the correct structures of "when"? generis
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2019, 10:28
RashedVai wrote:
Bunuel, There is a typo in answer choice (E). "the" is missing here. the correct version is
(E) It took less than the 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then

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Fixed. thank you.
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2019, 06:51
Nice question.
IMO B is incorrect because "releasing" has no subject.
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2019, 11:26
@TheGMATDoctor
A. Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
B. In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
C. In less than the 35 years since African honeybees had been released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
D. It took less than 35 years from the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, when
E. It took less than 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then[/quote]

Let me give you my humble opinion.

B incorrect because, in part, of the misplaced modifier rule: whatever "releasing" is referring to needs to follow the comma after Brazil. However, "their descendants" (of honeybees) is unacceptable for obvious reasons.

C incorrect because "since" must be followed by an event at a particular point in time in the past (i.e, since 2000; since the release of the honeybees, since the honeybees were released). For this reason, the past perfect is inappropriate and you must use the simple past if you opt for a conjugated verb. Do NOT use the past perfect in the "since" clause, period. Also using "the" before 35 years is incorrect.

well, option C) does give something like you mentioned (highlighted), is that a definite error you have pointed out? or there are other ones such as the usage of "the" before "35 years" or anything else?

Also, I haven't understood why shouldn't we use "in" preceding "less than 35 years"? as in B and C
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2019, 04:06

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2020, 04:46
Dear GMATGuruNY,

I'm a bit lost on how you calculate the timeline in choice C: https://www.beatthegmat.com/explain-the ... 76191.html

Quote:
C: 35 years since African honeybees HAD BEEN RELEASED
If the release of the bees took place on January 1, 1900, then on January 1, 1950, the bees already HAD BEEN RELEASED.
Thus, 35 years since African Honeybees HAD BEEN RELEASED could imply January 1, 1950 + 35 years = January 1, 1985.
Not the intended timeline.

Where does the highlighted portion come from?
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2020, 08:15
sandipchowdhury wrote:

(B) In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,

IMHO B is incorrect because since releasing is (or could be confused as) a NOUN MODIFIER.

In this sense, whenever we have a SUBORDINATOR + PARTICIPLE (either past or present), we are building a noun modifier - even though, in some cases, it could also be a verb modifier.

Example:

Although exhausted, JOE wanted to keep on playing. -------> "although exhausted" here needs "JOE" to make sense, and therefore needs to be next to that noun.

In conclusion, the "since releasing" phrase is touching "their descendants", and is incorrect because the descendants could not have released the older honeybees.

Rod,
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2020, 07:13
B is incorrect because, in part, of the misplaced modifier rule: whatever "releasing" is referring to needs to follow the comma after Brazil. However, "their descendants" (of honeybees) is unacceptable for obvious reasons.

C is incorrect a 'since' must be followed by an event at a particular point in time in the past (i.e, since 2000; since the release of the honeybees, since the honeybees were released).

D and E are out for obvious reasons.

Hence A.
Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao   [#permalink] 01 Jun 2020, 07:13

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# Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao

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