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# Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter

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Director
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Re: Local authorities are considering ... [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2012, 03:14
+1E

BF1 - incremental increases in the littering fine have proven to be consistently effective at further reducing the amount of litter in the community picnic area
BF2 - Picnic area users would perceive this fine to be unreasonable and unenforceable, and would disregard the litter law altogether

BF1 – It is a statement of causation. It will not hold the case. It is not a statement of fact. It does not weakens the main position that the author defends. Eliminate B,C,D

Between A and E

BF1 does not support BF2, eliminate A

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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2012, 03:31
Choice E is the right choice.

Took sometime to figure out the solution. Thanks for the question

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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2012, 10:13
Mr. getgyan, can u please explain what does the phrase 'statement of causation that the author predicts will not hold in the case at hand' mean?
''statement of causation ' - means?
hope case in hand - littering law?

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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2012, 03:54
Hi,

Let me see if I can help.

I interpret 'statement of causation' to mean the littering law.

So in this example, we see that the suggested result of the littering law is in the bold section.
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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2013, 07:16
2
KUDOS

(1) MAIN POINT: The fine will not work this time
(2) The first: the fine has worked many times (The author accepted this fact)
(3) The second:Explanation on why it will not work this time

• The first is irrefutable evidence that the author offers in support of a prediction; the second is that prediction.

• The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will be repeated in the case at hand; the second
raises evidence against this prediction.

• The first is a statement of fact that the author accepts to be true; the second is presented as a consequence of this
fact.

• The first is evidence that weakens the main position that the author defends; the second is that position.
The position is not highlighted.

• The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will not hold in the case at hand; the second offers a
line of reasoning to support this prediction.

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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2013, 10:15
mbaiseasy wrote:

(1) MAIN POINT: The fine will not work this time
(2) The first: the fine has worked many times (The author accepted this fact)
(3) The second:Explanation on why it will not work this time

• The first is irrefutable evidence that the author offers in support of a prediction; the second is that prediction.

• The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will be repeated in the case at hand; the second
raises evidence against this prediction.

• The first is a statement of fact that the author accepts to be true; the second is presented as a consequence of this
fact.

• The first is evidence that weakens the main position that the author defends; the second is that position.
The position is not highlighted.

• The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will not hold in the case at hand; the second offers a
line of reasoning to support this prediction.

Excellent Bifurcation of the answer choices.
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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2014, 00:41
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Boldface revision: Local authorities are considering an amendment [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2015, 20:24
Expert's post
6
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter law that would raise the fine for littering in the community picnic area to \$1,000. Since the inception of the litter law, incremental increases in the littering fine have proven to be consistently effective at further reducing the amount of litter in the community picnic area. However, raising the fine to \$1,000 would actually have the unintended effect of increasing the amount of litter in the picnic area. Picnic area users would perceive this fine to be unreasonable and unenforceable, and would disregard the litter law altogether. In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is irrefutable evidence that the author offers in support of a prediction; the second is that prediction.

B. The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will be repeated in the case at hand; the second raises evidence against this prediction.

C. The first is a statement of fact that the author accepts to be true; the second is presented as a consequence of this fact.

D. The first is evidence that weakens the main position that the author defends; the second is that position.

E. The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will not hold in the case at hand; the second offers a line of reasoning to support this prediction.
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Re: Boldface revision: Local authorities are considering an amendment [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2015, 20:24
Post Reserved for OE. Kudos for answers and explanations.
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Re: Boldface revision: Local authorities are considering an amendment [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2015, 02:18
Chose E. However, raising the fine to \$1,000 would actually have the unintended effect of increasing the amount of litter in the picnic area - this sentence is a conclusion.
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Re: Boldface revision: Local authorities are considering an amendment [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2015, 23:22
Expert's post
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter law that would raise the fine for littering in the community picnic area to \$1,000. Since the inception of the litter law, incremental increases in the littering fine have proven to be consistently effective at further reducing the amount of litter in the community picnic area. However, raising the fine to \$1,000 would actually have the unintended effect of increasing the amount of litter in the picnic area. Picnic area users would perceive this fine to be unreasonable and unenforceable, and would disregard the litter law altogether. In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is irrefutable evidence that the author offers in support of a prediction; the second is that prediction.

B. The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will be repeated in the case at hand; the second raises evidence against this prediction.

C. The first is a statement of fact that the author accepts to be true; the second is presented as a consequence of this fact.

D. The first is evidence that weakens the main position that the author defends; the second is that position.

E. The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will not hold in the case at hand; the second offers a line of reasoning to support this prediction

if we go through the Q..
prediction/conclusion- However, raising the fine to \$1,000 would actually have the unintended effect of increasing the amount of litter in the picnic area...
now the second gives a reason to support this.. only E gives this as a choice..
ans E
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Re: Boldface revision: Local authorities are considering an amendment [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2015, 19:55
The author concludes that raising the fine to \$1,000 would have the unintended
effect of increasing the amount of litter in the picnic area. When determining the
function of the two bold statements, we must consider how they relate to this
conclusion: the first bold portion weighs against the conclusion, while the second
bold portion supports the conclusion. The correct answer will represent these
relationships.
(A) The “prediction” mentioned here refers to the author’s conclusion (raising the
fine to \$1,000 would increase the amount of litter). This answer choice incorrectly
states that the first bold portion supports this conclusion. Also, this choice
incorrectly states that the second bold statement is the prediction, or conclusion.
(B) This choice incorrectly states that the author’s prediction, or conclusion, is
consistent with the first bold statement when in fact it predicts the exact opposite
outcome. Further, this answer states that the second bold portion weighs against
the author’s conclusion when in fact it supports the conclusion.
(C) The second bold portion does not come as a consequence of the first. In fact,
the two bold portions are in complete contrast to one another.
(D) The second bold portion is not the main position that the author defends. The
main position is that raising the fine to \$1,000 would increase the amount of litter
in the picnic area.
(E) CORRECT. This answer choice correctly identifies the first bold portion as a
statement of causation that does not support the author’s claim, and the second
bold statement as a line of logic that does support this claim.
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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2015, 07:15
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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 12:21
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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2016, 09:55
why is c wrong here ?
The first is a statement of fact that the author accepts to be true; the second is presented as a consequence of this
fact.

Second does sound like a consequence of first.
Can somebody explain why is it wrong ?
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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2016, 11:03
1
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Shrivathsan wrote:
why is c wrong here ?
The first is a statement of fact that the author accepts to be true; the second is presented as a consequence of this
fact.

Second does sound like a consequence of first.
Can somebody explain why is it wrong ?

2nd is not the consequence of the 1st. rather the consequence of first i "However, raising the fine to \$1,000 would actually have the unintended effect of increasing the
amount of litter in the picnic area.". 2nd is strengthening this consequence. Hence, C is wrong.
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Re: Boldface revision: Local authorities are considering an amendment [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2016, 08:26
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Re: Boldface revision: Local authorities are considering an amendment [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2017, 16:39
souvik101990 wrote:
Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter law that would raise the fine for littering in the community picnic area to \$1,000. Since the inception of the litter law, incremental increases in the littering fine have proven to be consistently effective at further reducing the amount of litter in the community picnic area. However, raising the fine to \$1,000 would actually have the unintended effect of increasing the amount of litter in the picnic area. Picnic area users would perceive this fine to be unreasonable and unenforceable, and would disregard the litter law altogether. In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is irrefutable evidence that the author offers in support of a prediction; the second is that prediction.

B. The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will be repeated in the case at hand; the second raises evidence against this prediction.

C. The first is a statement of fact that the author accepts to be true; the second is presented as a consequence of this fact.

D. The first is evidence that weakens the main position that the author defends; the second is that position.

E. The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will not hold in the case at hand; the second offers a line of reasoning to support this prediction.

Either I got smarter or the question is definitely not a 700 level one

First one is 100% a fact.
Second is a reasoning why the amendment wouldn't be considered a good one.
E fits perfectly!

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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 03:19
The author concludes that raising the fine to \$1,000 would have the unintended
effect of increasing the amount of litter in the picnic area. When determining the
function of the two bold statements, we must consider how they relate to this
conclusion: the first bold portion weighs against the conclusion, while the second
bold portion supports the conclusion. The correct answer will represent these
relationships.

The causation refers to something that results from something that has happened.

for eg: X->Y

Here the increase in fine that has been added has caused the people to litter less.

Option E states that the statement of causation (which is a fact and has actually happened) will not happen. The line of reasoning by the author is given in the second boldface sentence.

Option E :- "The first is a statement of causation that the author predicts will not hold in the case at hand; the second offers a line of reasoning to support this prediction.The causation refers to something that results from something that has happened".

(E) CORRECT. This answer choice correctly identifies the first bold portion as a
statement of causation that does not support the author’s claim, and the second
bold statement as a line of logic that does support this claim.
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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 08:37
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2017, 08:37

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# Local authorities are considering an amendment to the litter

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