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# Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti

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Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Oct 2018, 00:11
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48% (02:16) correct 52% (02:31) wrong based on 1097 sessions

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Which of the following most logically completes the argument ?

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ticks. Deer ticks are almost never born infected with the bacterium, but they can pick it up from feeding on an infected host in any of the tick's three successive stage of development: larva, nymph, adult. Once infected, a tick remains infected through any subsequent developmental stages, but since a tick feeds on only one host in each stage, it follows that ______________

A. People can be infected only by being bitten by a tick that is either in larval stage or in the nymph stage

B. People cannot be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage

C. It is not possible for a person to be infected by a tick that is in the nymph stage or by a tick that was infected with the bacterium while in the nymph stage

D. People infected with the Lyme disease bacterium cannot transmit bacterium to adult deer ticks

E. Only deer ticks that are adults can transmit the Lyme disease bacterium to people

"Lyme disease" Strengthen Question
"Lyme disease" Evaluate Argument Question

Does anyone know how to draw the logical picture of this question ?
I went with POE but still got this question incorrect ....
A/E are out for sure....
have no idea about the rest 3 ....

Thanks ...

Originally posted by Michael KC Chen on 02 Apr 2016, 06:23.
Last edited by Bunuel on 09 Oct 2018, 00:11, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2016, 06:43
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Michael KC Chen wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument ?

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ticks. Deer ticks are almost never born infected with the bacterium, but they can pick it up from feeding on an infected host in any of the tick's three successive stage of development: larva, nymph, adult. Once infected, a tick remains infected through any subsequent developmental stages, but since a tick feeds on only one host in each stage, it follows that ______________

A. People can be infected only by being bitten by a tick that is either in larval stage or in the nymph stage
B. People cannot be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage
C. It is not possible for a person to be infected by a tick that is in the nymph stage or by a tick that was infected with the bacterium while in the nymph stage
D. People infected with the Lyme disease bacterium cannot transmit bacterium to adult deer ticks
E. Only deer ticks that are adults can transmit the Lyme disease bacterium to people

Does anyone know how to draw the logical picture of this question ?
I went with POE but still got this question incorrect ....
A/E are out for sure....
have no idea about the rest 3 ....

Thanks ...

Hi,
what I can make out of this CR--
Lyme disease is transmitted to people by deer tick carrying the bacteria causing the disease. the deer tick gets infected in any of the three stages by feeding on infected host. Thereafter it carries this bacteria. However deertick feeds on ONLY one host in each stage..

what does this mean--

1) deertick getting infected in larval stage, can transmit the disease to two people, one in its NYMPH stage and one in its ADULT stage..
2) deertick getting infected in nymph stage, can transmit the disease toone person in its ADULT stage..
3) Any deertick getting infected in adult stage, cannot transmit the disease to any one as it can feed only on ONE host in each stage, and OFCOURSE it got the bacterium while feeding on that ONE host and NOW it will not feed on any other person and thus will not spread the disease to any one ..

POINT 3 is covered by choice B..
Hope it helps
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2016, 06:35
9
crescendo85 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument ?

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ticks. Deer ticks are almost never born infected with the bacterium, but they can pick it up from feeding on an infected host in any of the tick's three successive stage of development: larva, nymph, adult. Once infected, a tick remains infected through any subsequent developmental stages, but since a tick feeds on only one host in each stage, it follows that ______________

A. People can be infected only by being bitten by a tick that is either in larval stage or in the nymph stage
B. People cannot be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage
C. It is not possible for a person to be infected by a tick that is in the nymph stage or by a tick that was infected with the bacterium while in the nymph stage
D. People infected with the Lyme disease bacterium cannot transmit bacterium to adult deer ticks
E. Only deer ticks that are adults can transmit the Lyme disease bacterium to people

ans is B!..not clear at all

Sent you 1 SC also. Thnx in advance.

Deer ticks can feed on only one entity in each stage. The entity may be infected or may not be infected. If the entity is infected, deer tick gets infected. However it would not transmit the bacteria in the same stage, since it has already completed its quota of feeding (one feed per stage) for that stage - it won't feed on another entity in the same stage and if it cannot feed on another entity, it cannot transmit the bacteria as well. It can infect only in the next stage.

Thus if a deer tick gets infected in adult stage, it cannot infect a human, because it would die after the adult stage.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2016, 11:04
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joealam wrote:
can someone explain the argument in a simplified way please??

can humans be the host?? so the deer feeds on human??? it doesn't make sense at all

how can the disease be transmitted? is it by feeding?? if it's by feeding then ok B) makes sense

OK .. trying to explain as simply as I can:

Deer ticks: an insect that has three phases (say I, II and III) in life. This insect is carrier of a bacteria (say X) that causes Lyme disease. The insect gets the bacteria X from someone else (say H1) while feeding on H1, who is already infected with the bacteria. Later the insect delivers the bacteria X to someone else (say H2) while feeding on H2.

The condition is that taking up and delivering of bacteria X cannot happen in the same phase of the insect's life because the insect feeds on only one animal or person in one phase of it's life (it cannot feed on both H1 and H2 in the same phase). If the insect gets the bacteria in phase I, it can deliver it in phase II or III. If the insect gets the bacteria in phase II, it can deliver it in phase III. If it gets in phase III, it cannot deliver at all.

Hosts: Hosts are the entities (could be humans or any animal) on whom the above insect feeds. H1 and H2 are both hosts (hosts of the insect).

Now read the explanations in the previous posts and hopefully you will understand the argument.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2016, 03:59
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johnnguyen2016 wrote:
chetan2u

Could you explain why D incorrect? Is it an out of scope answer?

Thanks

Hi,

the reasoning is

the deer tick gets infected by feeding on a HOST carrying the disease. ALSO, the deer tick can feed on ONLY three persons in its entire life- ONE each in larva, nymph, adult.
1) The deer tick may not get infected at all if all these THREE host are disease -free...
2) OR it can get infected in any one of these stages and transmit the disease to its host in next stage...

what does D tell us--

D. People infected with the Lyme disease bacterium cannot transmit bacterium to adult deer ticks..

If an adult deer tick has not got infected in larva and nymph stages, and then it feeds on an infected person, the adult deer tick can get infected BUT it cannot transmit it to ANYONE else as it does not feed on any other person after feeding on ONE person in that stage..

so D is not OUT of context But it does not follow the logical reasoning of the PARA..

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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2016, 15:40
2
mitko20m wrote:
Thank you! This makes sense but B is still contradictory because people CAN (not cannot) be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage

No, people CANNOT be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage . The reason is as follows:

The tick can feed "on ONLY ONE host in each stage". Suppose a tick comes to adult stage without any infection. Now in the adult stage it feeds on a host who is infected and picks up the disease. Now in adult stage this tick will NOT be able to infect anybody since it will NOT feed on any other host in the adult stage ( feeds on only one host in each stage). The tick can only infect a person in the SUBSEQUENT stage after picking up the disease. Since the tick dies after completion of the adult stage, it can't infect anybody after adult stage.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2018, 20:10
2
Top Contributor
1
Michael KC Chen wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument ?

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ticks. Deer ticks are almost never born infected with the bacterium, but they can pick it up from feeding on an infected host in any of the tick's three successive stage of development: c. Once infected, a tick remains infected through any subsequent developmental stages, but since a tick feeds on only one host in each stage, it follows that ______________

A. People can be infected only by being bitten by a tick that is either in larval stage or in the nymph stage
B. People cannot be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage
C. It is not possible for a person to be infected by a tick that is in the nymph stage or by a tick that was infected with the bacterium while in the nymph stage
D. People infected with the Lyme disease bacterium cannot transmit bacterium to adult deer ticks
E. Only deer ticks that are adults can transmit the Lyme disease bacterium to people

This is an INFERENCE question.
So, based on the given information, what can we conclude with certainty?

Let's start by summarizing the premises.
PREMISE: Deer ticks give people Lyme disease via bacterium.
PREMISE: Deer ticks seldom born infected with bacterium
PREMISE: Deer ticks get bacterium by feeding on infected hosts during 1 of 3 stages (larva, nymph, adult)
PREMISE: Tick remains infected through any further stages
PREMISE: Tick feeds on only one host in each stage

Next, we should try to come up with our own conclusion that follows from the premises.
NOTE: Don't spend too long doing so.
I can't think of a conclusion that follows from the premises, so let's head to the answer choices.

KEY: As we examine each answer choice, we should ask "Based on the given premises, MUST this conclusion be true?"

A. People can be infected only by being bitten by a tick that is either in larval stage or in the nymph stage
MUST this be true?
No. if a tick become infected during its nymph stage, it can later transmit the bacterium during its adult stage.
ELIMINATE A

B. People cannot be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage
MUST this be true?
YES!!!
We're told that ticks feed on only one host in each stage. So, if a tick picks up the Lyme disease bacterium during the adult stage (the LAST stage of its development), then that tick got the bacterium from its ONE AND ONLY host during that adult stage.
Since the tick will not have any other hosts during that adult stage, and since the adult stage is the tick's LAST stage, there is no way that it can transmit the bacterium to a human
KEEP B.

C. It is not possible for a person to be infected by a tick that is in the nymph stage or by a tick that was infected with the bacterium while in the nymph stage
MUST this be true?
No!
We're told that deer ticks are seldom born infected with bacterium. So, it's POSSIBLE that a deer tick is born infected with bacterium, which means it can pass on the bacterium to a human host during it's nymph stage.
ELIMINATE C

D. People infected with the Lyme disease bacterium cannot transmit bacterium to adult deer ticks
MUST this be true?
No.
Deer ticks get bacterium by feeding on infected hosts. So, if a deer tick has a human host that is infected with Lyme disease bacterium, then a tick could become infected by the person.
ELIMINATE D

E. Only deer ticks that are adults can transmit the Lyme disease bacterium to people
MUST this be true?
No!
See rationale for eliminating C
ELIMINATE E

Cheers,
Brent
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2016, 11:55
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chetan2u wrote:
johnnguyen2016 wrote:
chetan2u

Could you explain why D incorrect? Is it an out of scope answer?

Thanks

Hi,

the reasoning is

the deer tick gets infected by feeding on a HOST carrying the disease. ALSO, the deer tick can feed on ONLY three persons in its entire life- ONE each in larva, nymph, adult.
1) The deer tick may not get infected at all if all these THREE host are disease -free...
2) OR it can get infected in any one of these stages and transmit the disease to its host in next stage...

what does D tell us--

D. People infected with the Lyme disease bacterium cannot transmit bacterium to adult deer ticks..

If an adult deer tick has not got infected in larva and nymph stages, and then it feeds on an infected person, the adult deer tick can get infected BUT it cannot transmit it to ANYONE else as it does not feed on any other person after feeding on ONE person in that stage..

so D is not OUT of context But it does not follow the logical reasoning of the PARA..

Thanks for this explanation. I was (and frankly still am) still thrown off by the 1st sentence of the stimulus, which says that deer ticks transmit Lyme disease, not that people transmit Lyme disease back to ticks. It seems like to even begin to arrive at the OA, you need to consider to be true that there can be human > tick transmission. This feels quite bizarre.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2016, 10:48
1
PrijitDebnath wrote:
Calala22 wrote:
Thanks for this explanation. I was (and frankly still am) still thrown off by the 1st sentence of the stimulus, which says that deer ticks transmit Lyme disease, not that people transmit Lyme disease back to ticks. It seems like to even begin to arrive at the OA, you need to consider to be true that there can be human > tick transmission. This feels quite bizarre.

I am also finding this quite difficult to understand. So, basically human beings can also be "hosts" from which the deer ticks can pick up Lyme disease in one of the three stages

The first part of your sentence is correct,but not the latter part. If an uninfected human is a host, then the the bacteria is transmitted FROM t deer tick TO the human, not the other way.

Here "host" means the entity on which the deer tick feeds - the entity that hosts deer ticks. If the host is "infected host", then deer tick picks up the bacteria. If not (such as an uninfected human), then it transmits the bacteria (if the deer tick is already infected).

Here it would be a mistake to assume that "host" means "host of bacteria". Here "host" means "host of deer tick", which could as well be a human without any infection.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 00:50
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mitko20m wrote:
I was also split between A and B, but I picked A because the stem explicitly states "Once infected, a tick remains infected through any subsequent developmental stages" which means adult stage, too, hence A. Could someone explain why this is omitted from the analysis? Thanks!

The word "only" is the issue in option A. It is not correct that humans get infected ONLY by larval stage or nymph stage ticks - humans may ALSO get infected by adult stage ticks. (In that case, the adult tick must have taken up the basteria in larval stage or nymph stage.) Hence A is wrong.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2016, 03:18
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A deer tick can get infected by feeding on an infected host. But a tick can feed on only one host in each stage.

Possibilities:
1) Larva: Feeds and gets infected; Nymph: can transmit the bacteria; Adult: can transmit the bacteria
2) Larva: uninfected; Nymph: Feeds and gets infected; Adult: can transmit the bacteria
3) Larva: uninfected; Nymph: uninfected; Adult: Feeds and gets infected --> Cannot transmit the bacteria

A. Incorrect. 'only' makes the reasoning too strong as people can be infected even by adult stage deer tick
C. Incorrect. It is possible in both the scenarios
D. Incorrect. It may be possible.
E. Incorrect. Need not be true.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2016, 03:48
chetan2u

Could you explain why D incorrect? Is it an out of scope answer?

Thanks
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2016, 07:24
Can Anyone share an idea on why A is wrong?
It looks like A is talking about the same thing as B. What are the minor difference between these 2?

Thanks!
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2016, 09:39
Calala22 wrote:
Thanks for this explanation. I was (and frankly still am) still thrown off by the 1st sentence of the stimulus, which says that deer ticks transmit Lyme disease, not that people transmit Lyme disease back to ticks. It seems like to even begin to arrive at the OA, you need to consider to be true that there can be human > tick transmission. This feels quite bizarre.

I am also finding this quite difficult to understand. So, basically human beings can also be "hosts" from which the deer ticks can pick up Lyme disease in one of the three stages
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06 Jul 2016, 18:17
I was also split between A and B, but I picked A because the stem explicitly states "Once infected, a tick remains infected through any subsequent developmental stages" which means adult stage, too, hence A. Could someone explain why this is omitted from the analysis? Thanks!
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 10:26
Thank you! This makes sense but B is still contradictory because people CAN (not cannot) be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2016, 07:21
can someone explain the argument in a simplified way please??

can humans be the host?? so the deer feeds on human??? it doesn't make sense at all

how can the disease be transmitted? is it by feeding?? if it's by feeding then ok B) makes sense
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2016, 03:06
I got this question on GMATPrep 6 verbal section. While analyzing my mistakes, I drew something similar on my notepad to visualize this better. It helps me to understand why option B is correct and why option A is not similar to option B and hence incorrect.

Hope it helps other clarifying their doubts.
Attachments

File comment: While thinking about the question, I drew something similar on my notepad. Hope it helps others to clarify their doubts.

Critical Reasoning.PNG [ 23.25 KiB | Viewed 10673 times ]

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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2018, 06:45
GMATPrepNow wrote:

B. People cannot be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage
MUST this be true?
YES!!!
We're told that ticks feed on only one host in each stage. So, if a tick picks up the Lyme disease bacterium during the adult stage (the LAST stage of its development), then that tick got the bacterium from its ONE AND ONLY host during that adult stage.
Since the tick will not have any other hosts during that adult stage, and since the adult stage is the tick's LAST stage, there is no way that it can transmit the bacterium to a human
KEEP B.

Cheers,
Brent

Dear GMATPrepNow Brent

I have a question about 'host'. Can the 'host' be a person? or others such animal, plants..etc? If it can't be a person, can tick pick up Lyme from an infected animal and transfer it to a person?

I'm confused.
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti  [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2018, 10:19
Top Contributor
Mo2men wrote:
GMATPrepNow wrote:

B. People cannot be infected by a tick that picked up the Lyme disease bacterium in the adult stage
MUST this be true?
YES!!!
We're told that ticks feed on only one host in each stage. So, if a tick picks up the Lyme disease bacterium during the adult stage (the LAST stage of its development), then that tick got the bacterium from its ONE AND ONLY host during that adult stage.
Since the tick will not have any other hosts during that adult stage, and since the adult stage is the tick's LAST stage, there is no way that it can transmit the bacterium to a human
KEEP B.

Cheers,
Brent

Dear GMATPrepNow Brent

I have a question about 'host'. Can the 'host' be a person? or others such animal, plants..etc? If it can't be a person, can tick pick up Lyme from an infected animal and transfer it to a person?

I'm confused.

Hi Mo2men,

I imagine that the host can be any animal (including people).
Yes, the deer tick can pick up Lyme from an infected animal and then transfer it to a person.
Which part of the question confuses you?

Cheers,
Brent
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to people by deer ti   [#permalink] 09 Dec 2018, 10:19

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