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Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found

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Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2013, 13:24
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Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found through research that motor oil slowly loses lubrication effectiveness after the car is driven for certain distances. On average, the motor oil is only fifty percent as effective after 3,000 miles of driving as it is the first day it is put into the car. For that reason, people should replace their motor oil every 3,000 miles.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?

(A) The research indicates that the oil loses effectiveness because it becomes dirty.
(B) The researchers found that there was not a significant difference in the effectiveness of motor oil in cars that reached 3,000 miles quickly versus those that took a long time to reach 3,000 miles.
(C) The researchers found that cars with motor oil at fifty percent effectiveness showed no more signs of damage or wear than those with fresh motor oil.
(D) The researchers were paid by the manufacturers of motor oil, who have a vested interest in selling more motor oil.
(E) Both synthetic and non-synthetic motor oils experience similar losses in motor oil effectiveness after 3,000 miles of driving.


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Re: Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2013, 20:47

Official Explanation



Answer C - In this argument, the conclusion is that people should change their motor oil every 3,000 miles. The conclusion is based on the fact that motor oil loses half of its effectiveness after being driven that distance. The central assumption here is that the loss of effectiveness is indeed a valid reason for changing the motor oil. Choice (C) challenges this assumption by saying that cars with motor oil at fifty percent effectiveness do not have any ill effects. Thus, choice (C) is the correct answer.

Choices (A), (B), and (E) are all out of scope. The fact that oil loses effectiveness because it becomes dirty does not weaken the conclusion. It also does not matter that cars that reach 3,000 miles at different rates experience similar declines in motor oil effectiveness; it also does not matter that the same is true of cars with different types of motor oil.

Choice (D) may be tempting, but is ultimately irrelevant. We may want to gravitate to a choice like (D) that questions the motives for the research, however we never want to challenge the evidence itself in a weaken question – only the central assumption. Even though the research was conducted under the supervision of motor oil companies, this does not alone weaken the conclusion that motor oil should be changed every 3,000 miles.
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Re: Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2013, 22:27
[quote="avohden"]Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found through research that motor oil slowly loses lubrication effectiveness after the car is driven for certain distances. On average, the motor oil is only fifty percent as effective after 3,000 miles of driving as it is the first day it is put into the car. For that reason, people should replace their motor oil every 3,000 miles.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?

(A) The research indicates that the oil loses effectiveness because it becomes dirty.
(B) The researchers found that there was not a significant difference in the effectiveness of motor oil in cars that reached 3,000 miles quickly versus those that took a long time to reach 3,000 miles.
(C) The researchers found that cars with motor oil at fifty percent effectiveness showed no more signs of damage or wear than those with fresh motor oil.
(D) The researchers were paid by the manufacturers of motor oil, who have a vested interest in selling more motor oil.
(E) Both synthetic and non-synthetic motor oils experience similar losses in motor oil effectiveness after 3,000 miles of driving.

Hello Dear,
the effectiveness of 50 percent is after every 3000 miles ia right think about engine oil..but if we can't change it then engine power is slightly fall down after some time..
I know option C is right but it is not applicable for every engine oil..
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Re: Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2016, 04:09
surajkumar00116 wrote:
avohden wrote:
Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found through research that motor oil slowly loses lubrication effectiveness after the car is driven for certain distances. On average, the motor oil is only fifty percent as effective after 3,000 miles of driving as it is the first day it is put into the car. For that reason, people should replace their motor oil every 3,000 miles.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?

(A) The research indicates that the oil loses effectiveness because it becomes dirty.
(B) The researchers found that there was not a significant difference in the effectiveness of motor oil in cars that reached 3,000 miles quickly versus those that took a long time to reach 3,000 miles.
(C) The researchers found that cars with motor oil at fifty percent effectiveness showed no more signs of damage or wear than those with fresh motor oil.
(D) The researchers were paid by the manufacturers of motor oil, who have a vested interest in selling more motor oil.
(E) Both synthetic and non-synthetic motor oils experience similar losses in motor oil effectiveness after 3,000 miles of driving.

Hello Dear,
the effectiveness of 50 percent is after every 3000 miles ia right think about engine oil..but if we can't change it then engine power is slightly fall down after some time..
I know option C is right but it is not applicable for every engine oil..


It shouldn't be applicable to all types of engines, because premise states "On average, the motor oil is only fifty percent as effective after 3,000 miles of driving as it is the first day it is put into the car"
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Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2016, 10:57
avohden wrote:

Official Explanation



Answer C - In this argument, the conclusion is that people should change their motor oil every 3,000 miles. The conclusion is based on the fact that motor oil loses half of its effectiveness after being driven that distance. The central assumption here is that the loss of effectiveness is indeed a valid reason for changing the motor oil. Choice (C) challenges this assumption by saying that cars with motor oil at fifty percent effectiveness do not have any ill effects. Thus, choice (C) is the correct answer.

Choices (A), (B), and (E) are all out of scope. The fact that oil loses effectiveness because it becomes dirty does not weaken the conclusion. It also does not matter that cars that reach 3,000 miles at different rates experience similar declines in motor oil effectiveness; it also does not matter that the same is true of cars with different types of motor oil.

Choice (D) may be tempting, but is ultimately irrelevant. We may want to gravitate to a choice like (D) that questions the motives for the research, however we never want to challenge the evidence itself in a weaken question – only the central assumption. Even though the research was conducted under the supervision of motor oil companies, this does not alone weaken the conclusion that motor oil should be changed every 3,000 miles.
ot.

Please explain further why not D? A flawed research with vested interests directly strikes out the first statement. Had there been an honest research probably the result would have been that there was no loss of lubrication.
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Re: Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2016, 08:26
Here is my explanation for the argument,
(A) The research indicates that the oil loses effectiveness because it becomes dirty. ----- There is no information about oil getting dirty in the argument.
(B) The researchers found that there was not a significant difference in the effectiveness of motor oil in cars that reached 3,000 miles quickly versus those that took a long time to reach 3,000 miles. ----- time to reach the 3000 miles does not effect the performance of the oil... Not correct
(C) The researchers found that cars with motor oil at fifty percent effectiveness showed no more signs of damage or wear than those with fresh motor oil. ----- Correct, Proves that even after fifty percent effectiveness shows signs equivalent to fresh motor oil..
(D) The researchers were paid by the manufacturers of motor oil, who have a vested interest in selling more motor oil.---
No information about this in the argument.
(E) Both synthetic and non-synthetic motor oils experience similar losses in motor oil effectiveness after 3,000 miles of driving.---- categorization of motor oil in synthetic and non synthetic is not available in the argument.
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Re: Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 00:29
avohden wrote:
Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found through research that motor oil slowly loses lubrication effectiveness after the car is driven for certain distances. On average, the motor oil is only fifty percent as effective after 3,000 miles of driving as it is the first day it is put into the car. For that reason, people should replace their motor oil every 3,000 miles.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above?

(A) The research indicates that the oil loses effectiveness because it becomes dirty.
(B) The researchers found that there was not a significant difference in the effectiveness of motor oil in cars that reached 3,000 miles quickly versus those that took a long time to reach 3,000 miles.
(C) The researchers found that cars with motor oil at fifty percent effectiveness showed no more signs of damage or wear than those with fresh motor oil.
(D) The researchers were paid by the manufacturers of motor oil, who have a vested interest in selling more motor oil.
(E) Both synthetic and non-synthetic motor oils experience similar losses in motor oil effectiveness after 3,000 miles of driving.



I was stuck between B and C. But ultimately chose B.
I reasoned B as the right one because B says there is no significant difference in effectiveness of the oil that reached 3000 miles (the claimed time to change the oil) vs. oil that took time to reach 3000 miles (the oil present from the moment it was put in). So if there is no significant difference in effectiveness then it doesn't make any sense changing the oil after 3000 miles (since the car is claimed to run normally when the oil is initially put in).

Experts please help!
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Re: Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2018, 02:06
The question directly asks for something that weakens the argument, making this a Weaken question.

The author concludes that motor oil should be changed every 3,000 miles, because after 3,000 miles it is only 50% effective.

The author is assuming that, once oil becomes only 50% effective, it needs to be changed. The correct choice will counter that assumption, showing that there it may not be necessary to replace motor oil when it becomes only 50% effective.

(C) matches the prediction and is correct. If 50% effectiveness is enough to match the performance of fresh oil in preventing engine wear, this makes it less likely oil would have to be replaced at 3,000 miles.

(A) is irrelevant. The author is not concerned with why the oil loses its effectiveness but whether that loss warrants changing the oil.

(B) is irrelevant. It does not matter how long it takes to reach the 3,000-mile threshold. The only question is whether or not the oil needs to be changed at that point.

(D) may be tempting, but it is irrelevant. A choice like (D) that questions the motives for the research may seem to weaken the argument. However, the evidence in a Weaken question can never be challenged - only the central assumption. Who supervised the research is not an issue. The argument is only concerned with the reduction in effectiveness and the recommendation to replace motor oil after 3,000 miles.

(E) is an irrelevant comparison between two types of oil and has no effect on the argument.
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Re: Manufacturers of motor oil for car engines have found &nbs [#permalink] 17 Dec 2018, 02:06
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