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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t

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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2020, 21:48
3
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A
B
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D
E

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  25% (medium)

Question Stats:

72% (01:28) correct 28% (01:35) wrong based on 195 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead to increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing of desert lands into current rangelands.

A) increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing

B) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting expansion

C) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, declining soil moisture, and a resulting expansion

D) increasing precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing

E) increasing precipitation, increasing evaporation, decreasing soil moisture, and therefore a resulting expansion

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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2020, 21:54
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Sentence Correction (SC1)



THE PROMPT
Quote:
Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead to increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing of desert lands into current rangelands.

• issues tested: Noun phrase parallelism and meaning

• Meaning of the sentence?
Scientists believe that global warming could lead to some events:
1) more precipitation / an increase in precipitation
2) more evaporation / an increase in evaporation
3) less soil moisture / a decline in soil moisture
4) more desert land and less rangeland / an expansion of desert lands into current rangelands

resulting is in every answer option

-- the spread of desert lands into current rangelands is caused by the other three things
-- When you see the word resulting or any variation of the word (resultant, result), you are on notice.
The sentence probably expresses cause and result, and you had better make sure that the option you choose conveys that logic.

• "dedicated nouns" vs. gerunds (verbING)
-- GMAC prefers a "normal" or dedicated noun to a noun made from adding --ING to a verb. (GMAC's preference is in line with good writing.)
-- expansion is a dedicated noun. Increasing is a noun formed by adding --ING to the verb increase.
THE OPTIONS
Quote:
A) increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing

as well as makes this option suspect, though as well as is not always wrong.
-- This list, for example, is correct: Good diets consist of protein, fruits and vegetables, and grains, as well as small amounts of healthy fats
-- But if you can see that the first three items cause the fourth, then rule out as well as.
The phrase is not telling us about less important items on a list (that follow as well as)
resulting increasing is horrible (just a heads up that two ING words are almost never placed back-to-back)
resulting is okay. It's in every single answer. We can put an adjective ("resulting") in front of a noun in a list of nouns even if the other nouns don't have adjectives.
• The problem is increasing, which is an adjective, not a noun, and thus not parallel with the nouns precipitation, evaporation, and decline
ELIMINATE A

Quote:
B) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting expansion

• looks okay
• we have three parallel nouns: increase, decline, and expansion
• as a bonus, option B is more concise than the other options
KEEP
Quote:
C) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, declining soil moisture, and a resulting expansion

an increase in is is not parallel to declining
ELIMINATE

Quote:
D) increasing precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing

as well as makes this answer suspect
increasing is not a noun. We do not put an article such as "an" or "the" in front of it. Similar to option A, increasing is not parallel to precipitation, evaporation, and decline
ELIMINATE D

Quote:
E) increasing precipitation, increasing evaporation, decreasing soil moisture, and therefore a resulting expansion
[/quote]
• the nouns are all parallel, but . . .
therefore and resulting are redundant

The best answer is B

I don't think that the state of ongoing events suggested in option E is easy to dismiss as wrong.
The scientists are predicting; they may well mean continuously increasing precipitation. We don't know.
We do know that redundancy kills option D especially when D is compared to B.

COMMENTS

Codebug4it and sofia2288 , welcome to SC Butler.

These answers range from good to excellent. Kudos to all
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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 24 May 2020, 00:05
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IMO B

A) increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing ( wrong parallelism, bifurcating whole process into separate sentences.)

B) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting expansion (correct usage of parallelism between sentences) <<<correct>>>

C) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, declining soil moisture, and a resulting expansion ("a" decline in soil moisture is creating gap in the continuous process described in the passage which is missing here) (incorrect)

D) increasing precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing (ing participle is wrong, as well as parallelism error)

E) increasing precipitation, increasing evaporation, decreasing soil moisture, and therefore a resulting expansion (same as D, ing participle and parallelism mistake)

Posted from my mobile device

Originally posted by yashikaaggarwal on 23 May 2020, 22:01.
Last edited by yashikaaggarwal on 24 May 2020, 00:05, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2020, 23:13
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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead to increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing of desert lands into current rangelands.

A) increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing -- "as well as" is unnecessary when a simple list of "a,b and c" will do

B) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting expansion -- CORRECT, noun, noun and noun parallelism

C) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, declining soil moisture, and a resulting expansion -- "increase in X, decline in Y" is better phrased than "increase in X, declining Y"

D) increasing precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing -- same as A

E) increasing precipitation, increasing evaporation, decreasing soil moisture, and therefore a resulting expansion -- Wordy and unnecessary gerund usage

So, it should be B, IMO.
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Re: Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2020, 00:00
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I chose (B). It took me 55 seconds.

We have 3-4 items in a list as the result of global warming. In (A) & (D), the use of "as well as" is not called for.

Among (B), (C), (E), the repeat of "increasing" in E can be eliminated by the approach used in (B) and (C).

Between (B) and (C), three items in B are in perfect parallel. That is why I chose (B) in the end.
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Re: Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2020, 00:51
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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead to increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing of desert lands into current rangelands.

A) increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing
This sentence is testing mainly parallelism. “Decline” and “resulting” are not parallel to “increased”. Additionally, “as well as” is usually used to expand rather than separate two different subjects. So in this case, it is uncalled for.

B) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting expansion
This sentence corrects the parallelism issues found above and makes correct use of “and” to separate each item.

C) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, declining soil moisture, and a resulting expansion
Parallelism issue similar to A.

D) increasing precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing
Similar parallelism issues seeing in A and C and incorrect use of “as well as”

E) increasing precipitation, increasing evaporation, decreasing soil moisture, and therefore a resulting expansion
This is a bit stylistically flawed. The result of global warming should refer to fixed event happening in the future (e.g. increased precipitation) rather than a continuing process (increasing precipitation). Moreover, the word “therefore” is redundant since we are already using “resulting” to indicate an event happening because of global warming.
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Re: Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2020, 14:46
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Answer: Option B

A) increased precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing - INCORRECT
=> "as well as" is used wrongly because both have similar emphasis here whereas "as well as" is used to show more emphasis on one than other.
=> “increased”, “Decline” and “increasing” are not parallel.

B) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting expansion - CORRECT
=> Removes "as well as" by using "and" which gives equal emphasis on both "precipitation and evaporation increase"
=> an increase, a decline, and a resulting expansion are parallel. so this option corrects both the issues.

C) an increase in precipitation and evaporation, declining soil moisture, and a resulting expansion - INCORRECT
=> Corrected "as well as" issue by using "and" but still contains parallelism issue as "declining" is not parallel with increase and expansion

D) increasing precipitation, as well as increased evaporation, a decline in soil moisture, and a resulting increasing - INCORRECT
=> similar issues as A

E) increasing precipitation, increasing evaporation, decreasing soil moisture, and therefore a resulting expansion - INCORRECT
=> Expansion is not a result of increased precipitation or decline in soil moisture, so the use of "therefore" is wrong. This option has a parallelism issue as well.
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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2020, 01:36
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Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t   [#permalink] 29 May 2020, 01:36

Many environmental scientists believe that global warming could lead t

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