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# Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th

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Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2004, 05:59
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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

OG16 SC113
Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2012, 10:44
I have chosen C for this answer choice:

A. It was very wordy and awkward to start the sentence with "Marconi's conception." Moreover, I felt that the pronoun "it" is ambiguous because it could refer back to the conception or radio. Also, the verb "is" should actually be "has become" to show the evolution of the radio.

B. The use of "but which" is strange and I'm not really sure what "which" is supposed to refer to.

C. This sentence is clear. The pronoun "it" does in fact refer to radio and the verb "has become" indicates the change in the radio's usage.

D. "Which" refers to telephone - this is incorrect.

E. "Other than what it is" is confusing. Is this supposed to modify something? Also, this does not connect with the other part of the sentence "...precisely the opposite."
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2012, 11:33
C, agree with explanation above
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 23:38
TriColor wrote:
Q10:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is- A tool is modifying a telephone when it should be the radio
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is-A tool is modifying a telephone when it should be the radio
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become- again which is modifying telephone when it should refer to the radio
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,-A tool is modifying a telephone when it should be the radio

I was wondering if people think that this is a legitimate way to go about answering this question?

In all these 4 wrong answer choices we have a modifier refering to the "telephone" making it seem as though Marconi is refering to the telephone as though it was used for mass communication when he is actually refering to the radio.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2012, 00:06
geno5 wrote:
TriColor wrote:
Q10:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is- A tool is modifying a telephone when it should be the radio
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is-A tool is modifying a telephone when it should be the radio
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become- again which is modifying telephone when it should refer to the radio
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,-A tool is modifying a telephone when it should be the radio

I was wondering if people think that this is a legitimate way to go about answering this question?

In all these 4 wrong answer choices we have a modifier refering to the "telephone" making it seem as though Marconi is refering to the telephone as though it was used for mass communication when he is actually refering to the radio.

This is a typical example of noun+noun modifiers. Whatever u mentioned about the modifiers is not correct.
A noun+ noun modifiers are versatile modifiers.
Unlike the structure of other modifiers, their structure does not restrict their modification to a particular entity in the sentence. For example, verb-ed or verb-ing modifier without a preceding comma can only modify the preceding noun entity.

The noun + noun modifiers are very versatile because despite having a definite structure, they don’t modify an entity in a definite position in the sentence. The noun + noun modifiers can modify the entire preceding clause, the preceding noun entity, or a noun in the middle of the sentence. The modification done by these modifiers is completely driven by the context of the sentence.

For more clarity pls refer articles by e-gmat: noun-noun-modifiers-before-we-start-discussing-about-the-137292.html
noun-noun-modifier-vs-verb-ing-modifier-as-discussed-in-137569.html
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2013, 05:47
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute
for the telephone, a tool for private conversation;
precisely the opposite, a tool for
communicating with a large, public audience.
(A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a
substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute
for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, but which is
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for
private conversation that could substitute for the
(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for
private conversation, a substitute for the
telephone, which has become
(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a
substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, other than what it is,

In C it refers to the last antecedent which is telephone right?SO according to the meaning of the sentence its wrong so i eliminated this option as wrong one.How come tat it can refer to radio instead of telephone? can some1 throw some light on this
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2013, 06:36
skamal7 wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute
for the telephone, a tool for private conversation;
precisely the opposite, a tool for
communicating with a large, public audience.
(A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a
substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute
for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, but which is
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for
private conversation that could substitute for the
(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for
private conversation, a substitute for the
telephone, which has become
(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a
substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, other than what it is,

In C it refers to the last antecedent which is telephone right?SO according to the meaning of the sentence its wrong so i eliminated this option as wrong one.How come tat it can refer to radio instead of telephone? can some1 throw some light on this

Hii.
I am sticking myself to B and C, as other options are easy to eliminate.
See this question is basically testing the meaning intent i.e. how well one interprets the intended meaning.
B- Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
Here "which" can refer both "radio" and "telephone". What we wanted in the correct choice was though radio was developed for purpose X, it has become useful tool for Y. This intent is not visible in B. In addition, there are two nouns in B that share equal intent being the subject and that's why relative pronoun is ambiguous here.
In C, what we needed is present. In addition, the subject throughout is "radio". So there is no ambiguity for "it" in order to refer to that noun.
I hope I expressed myself.
I got this question in GMAT Prep.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2013, 06:39
skamal7 wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute
for the telephone, a tool for private conversation;
precisely the opposite, a tool for
communicating with a large, public audience.
(A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a
substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute
for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, but which is
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for
private conversation that could substitute for the
(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for
private conversation, a substitute for the
telephone, which has become
(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a
substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, other than what it is,

In C it refers to the last antecedent which is telephone right?SO according to the meaning of the sentence its wrong so i eliminated this option as wrong one.How come tat it can refer to radio instead of telephone? can some1 throw some light on this

sKamal,

First things first. Never look for pronoun ambiguity error in your initial pass over the answer choices. Pronoun ambiguity is accepted as far as the meaning is clear.

In C, it refers to Radio and not telephone.

Always follow POE( process of elimination). Since you were in doubt about pronoun ambiguity in C, you could have looked for other errors and could have found that all other answer choices are grammatically incorrect.

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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08 May 2013, 22:37
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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22 May 2013, 05:43
Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

In the above option, how can we be sure that "that" is referring to the clause "a tool for private conversation" but not the the noun "conversation"?
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 21:27
anilisanil wrote:
Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

In the above option, how can we be sure that "that" is referring to the clause "a tool for private conversation" but not the the noun "conversation"?

Hi there,

You have to go by meaning not by rules in SC, as GMAC is leaning towards meaning now a days.

When you say

a tool for private conversation that

here that modifies the whole entity "a tool for private conversation" Not only the tool

It is same as the exception of the 'WHICH' RULE

X,which (correctly refers to X=NOUN)

X + preposition + NOUN, which ( can make sense with the whole phrase knowing the fact that (Prep+Noun) modifies X)

Hope that helps !
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 21:31
I strongly disagree that the appositive 'a tool for private

Per the intent it is right to say

conceived of the X as a substitute of Y, a tool

When we know Y=a tool of blah blah then as X can substitute Y it can also act as a tool of blah blah.....
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2014, 02:08
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2014, 11:16
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks

Me too looking for the explaination from e-Gmat on this... Because it seems contrary to many of the rules e-Gmat c explains... or may be I am not able to implement them well... Help needed...

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2014, 09:34
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks

Hi Nitinaka19,

Slowly, he finished the hot chocolate.

This sentence is an independent clause. Yes, it starts with the adverb “slowly”. However, adjectives and adverbs do not make a clause a Dependent clause.

Answer 2: Well yes, in Choice B, “a tool for private conversation modifies “telephone”. However, Choice B is not incorrect for this modifier. It is incorrect for the use of “which”. Notice that “which” is preceded by a parallel marker “but”. Now this “which” clause is not parallel to anything in the sentence. That’s the error in Choice B.

Answer C: In Choice C, the “that” clause modifies “a tool for private conversation” because grammatically, that’s the entity that precedes the Relative Pronoun “that”. However, logically it modifies “radio” because the sentence says that Marconi conceived of radio as a tool…. This means radio = a tool for private conversation. So logically “that” refers to “radio” as well.

You can take a look at OG13#6 where another Noun Modifier (Verb-ed Modifier) grammatically refers to the preceding Noun Entity that in essence refers back to the Subject of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2014, 14:01
Quote:
Hi Nitinaka19,

Slowly, he finished the hot chocolate.

This sentence is an independent clause. Yes, it starts with the adverb “slowly”. However, adjectives and adverbs do not make a clause a Dependent clause.

Answer 2: Well yes, in Choice B, “a tool for private conversation modifies “telephone”. However, Choice B is not incorrect for this modifier. It is incorrect for the use of “which”. Notice that “which” is preceded by a parallel marker “but”. Now this “which” clause is not parallel to anything in the sentence. That’s the error in Choice B.

Answer C: In Choice C, the “that” clause modifies “a tool for private conversation” because grammatically, that’s the entity that precedes the Relative Pronoun “that”. However, logically it modifies “radio” because the sentence says that Marconi conceived of radio as a tool…. This means radio = a tool for private conversation. So logically “that” refers to “radio” as well.

You can take a look at OG13#6 where another Noun Modifier (Verb-ed Modifier) grammatically refers to the preceding Noun Entity that in essence refers back to the Subject of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks for the reply; however, I am looking for the three-step explanation....
Please let me know what is wrong in the below mentioned analysis:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
Applying three-step-approach to the question.
Meaning – Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute of telephone- a tool for private conversation. But this conception is precisely the opposite – radio is a tool for communicating with the large public audience.
Break Down – Subject and verbs are in bold
Cl1 - Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, [a tool for private conversation (appositive that describes the telephone)
; - clause connector
Cl2 - instead, it is precisely the opposite, [a tool for communicating with a large, public audience (appositive modifying ‘it’ that, in turn, could refer either to Radio or to Telephone)
Error Analysis-
S-V = No subject verb error
V-T = No verb tense error
Parallelism = No Parallelism error. Two parallel clauses connected with ;
Pronoun = “it” in second clause is ambiguous.
Modifier = “a tool… audience” describing second clause, but still modifies the subject of the second clause
Idiom = No error – “substitute for” is the correct idiom.
Meaning = clear
Other = No other error found

POE =
A) Incorrect - Ambiguous “it”
B) Correct – as ‘which’ seems referring to the Radio- logically
C) Incorrect - “that” in second clause refer to the conversation
D) Incorrect – “radio to be tool” incorrect idiom
E) Incorrect - “radio to be tool” incorrect idiom and ambiguous “it” into the second clause.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2014, 01:39
egmat wrote:
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks

Hi Nitinaka19,

Slowly, he finished the hot chocolate.

This sentence is an independent clause. Yes, it starts with the adverb “slowly”. However, adjectives and adverbs do not make a clause a Dependent clause.

Answer 2: Well yes, in Choice B, “a tool for private conversation modifies “telephone”. However, Choice B is not incorrect for this modifier. It is incorrect for the use of “which”. Notice that “which” is preceded by a parallel marker “but”. Now this “which” clause is not parallel to anything in the sentence. That’s the error in Choice B.

Answer C: In Choice C, the “that” clause modifies “a tool for private conversation” because grammatically, that’s the entity that precedes the Relative Pronoun “that”. However, logically it modifies “radio” because the sentence says that Marconi conceived of radio as a tool…. This means radio = a tool for private conversation. So logically “that” refers to “radio” as well.

You can take a look at OG13#6 where another Noun Modifier (Verb-ed Modifier) grammatically refers to the preceding Noun Entity that in essence refers back to the Subject of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

When you say, In Choice B "which" is not parallel. I assume that you are considering the parallelism of two clauses- "First clause, but second clause".
Can you please explain how the second clause is not parallel to the first clause?
Also, if "which" modifies telephone then it changes the meaning of the sentence. Can we not use this to eliminate choice B?

Thanks,
Anuj
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2014, 23:41
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This post was
BOOKMARKED
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, but which is
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the
(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the
telephone, which has become
(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, other than what it is,

Meaning : Marconi’s conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation and he thought radio as a substitute for telephone. But radio became a tool for mass communication

Option A) Holding option A
Option B) If we remove the modifier “a tool for private conversation”. The sentence becomes
“Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone but which is”
which replaces telephone and makes the sentence nonsensical.
Option C) Holding option C)
Option D) Same issue as that of Option B)
Option E) “other than what it is” is wordy and can be replaced with instead.

I am confused between Option A and option C)

Meaning analysis of Option A):
Marconi conceptualized radio as a substitute of telephone. Now the modifier “a tool for private
tense is present for the second half – which seems ok as the statement is made in present tense.

Meaning analysis of Option C)
Marconi conceptualized radio as a tool for private conversation and radio could substitute for the telephone. “it” logically refers to radio.
tense is present perfect -> that seems ok as the radio has been working as a mass communication since inception.

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2014, 14:32
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Hi Kinjal,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

The modifier "a tool for private conversation" is a culprit in this choice. This modifier is intended for "radio", Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation. However, "it" (radio) has become just the opposite, "a tool for communicating with a large, public audience". This is the intended meaning of the sentence that is correctly expressed by Choice C.

Also, the use of "is" is not appropriate in Choice A. Use of simple present present tense makes this a universal fact. In choice C, "has become" clearly shows that what it was meant to be but what it has eventually become.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2014, 13:00
Will go with C :

The statement requires a contrast. Only A and C seem to Provide the required contrast. (use of Instead)
In A, 'Marconi’s conception...was as' is wrong. Hence C.

Please correct me If My approach is incorrect.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2014, 21:02
marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

Hi e-gmat,

My analysis on this question. Could you please review and let me know if my thought process is correct -

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

Analysis : IC, Noun + Noun Modifier; Adverb, IC
Error :
1. a tool for private conversation is N+NM, hence can modify radio or telephone (either)
2. Instead, it is – parallel IC, hence it refers back to parallel noun of “Marconi’s conception” instead of radio

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

Analysis: IC, Noun + Noun Mod, But + IC
Which in this case would refer to radio (noun in parallel IC) or conversation (closest noun)?

(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Analysis: IC + that + modifier; instead, IC
Correct option

(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, modifier
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
2. Which refer to telephone

(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, <<can’t get rest of the structure
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th   [#permalink] 12 Jul 2014, 21:02

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