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# Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2014, 10:16
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks

Me too looking for the explaination from e-Gmat on this... Because it seems contrary to many of the rules e-Gmat c explains... or may be I am not able to implement them well... Help needed...

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2014, 08:34
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Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks

Hi Nitinaka19,

Slowly, he finished the hot chocolate.

This sentence is an independent clause. Yes, it starts with the adverb “slowly”. However, adjectives and adverbs do not make a clause a Dependent clause.

Answer 2: Well yes, in Choice B, “a tool for private conversation modifies “telephone”. However, Choice B is not incorrect for this modifier. It is incorrect for the use of “which”. Notice that “which” is preceded by a parallel marker “but”. Now this “which” clause is not parallel to anything in the sentence. That’s the error in Choice B.

Answer C: In Choice C, the “that” clause modifies “a tool for private conversation” because grammatically, that’s the entity that precedes the Relative Pronoun “that”. However, logically it modifies “radio” because the sentence says that Marconi conceived of radio as a tool…. This means radio = a tool for private conversation. So logically “that” refers to “radio” as well.

You can take a look at OG13#6 where another Noun Modifier (Verb-ed Modifier) grammatically refers to the preceding Noun Entity that in essence refers back to the Subject of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2014, 13:01
Quote:
Hi Nitinaka19,

Slowly, he finished the hot chocolate.

This sentence is an independent clause. Yes, it starts with the adverb “slowly”. However, adjectives and adverbs do not make a clause a Dependent clause.

Answer 2: Well yes, in Choice B, “a tool for private conversation modifies “telephone”. However, Choice B is not incorrect for this modifier. It is incorrect for the use of “which”. Notice that “which” is preceded by a parallel marker “but”. Now this “which” clause is not parallel to anything in the sentence. That’s the error in Choice B.

Answer C: In Choice C, the “that” clause modifies “a tool for private conversation” because grammatically, that’s the entity that precedes the Relative Pronoun “that”. However, logically it modifies “radio” because the sentence says that Marconi conceived of radio as a tool…. This means radio = a tool for private conversation. So logically “that” refers to “radio” as well.

You can take a look at OG13#6 where another Noun Modifier (Verb-ed Modifier) grammatically refers to the preceding Noun Entity that in essence refers back to the Subject of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks for the reply; however, I am looking for the three-step explanation....
Please let me know what is wrong in the below mentioned analysis:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
Applying three-step-approach to the question.
Meaning – Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute of telephone- a tool for private conversation. But this conception is precisely the opposite – radio is a tool for communicating with the large public audience.
Break Down – Subject and verbs are in bold
Cl1 - Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, [a tool for private conversation (appositive that describes the telephone)
; - clause connector
Cl2 - instead, it is precisely the opposite, [a tool for communicating with a large, public audience (appositive modifying ‘it’ that, in turn, could refer either to Radio or to Telephone)
Error Analysis-
S-V = No subject verb error
V-T = No verb tense error
Parallelism = No Parallelism error. Two parallel clauses connected with ;
Pronoun = “it” in second clause is ambiguous.
Modifier = “a tool… audience” describing second clause, but still modifies the subject of the second clause
Idiom = No error – “substitute for” is the correct idiom.
Meaning = clear
Other = No other error found

POE =
A) Incorrect - Ambiguous “it”
B) Correct – as ‘which’ seems referring to the Radio- logically
C) Incorrect - “that” in second clause refer to the conversation
D) Incorrect – “radio to be tool” incorrect idiom
E) Incorrect - “radio to be tool” incorrect idiom and ambiguous “it” into the second clause.

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2014, 00:39
egmat wrote:
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconiâ€™s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks

Hi Nitinaka19,

Slowly, he finished the hot chocolate.

This sentence is an independent clause. Yes, it starts with the adverb “slowly”. However, adjectives and adverbs do not make a clause a Dependent clause.

Answer 2: Well yes, in Choice B, “a tool for private conversation modifies “telephone”. However, Choice B is not incorrect for this modifier. It is incorrect for the use of “which”. Notice that “which” is preceded by a parallel marker “but”. Now this “which” clause is not parallel to anything in the sentence. That’s the error in Choice B.

Answer C: In Choice C, the “that” clause modifies “a tool for private conversation” because grammatically, that’s the entity that precedes the Relative Pronoun “that”. However, logically it modifies “radio” because the sentence says that Marconi conceived of radio as a tool…. This means radio = a tool for private conversation. So logically “that” refers to “radio” as well.

You can take a look at OG13#6 where another Noun Modifier (Verb-ed Modifier) grammatically refers to the preceding Noun Entity that in essence refers back to the Subject of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

When you say, In Choice B "which" is not parallel. I assume that you are considering the parallelism of two clauses- "First clause, but second clause".
Can you please explain how the second clause is not parallel to the first clause?
Also, if "which" modifies telephone then it changes the meaning of the sentence. Can we not use this to eliminate choice B?

Thanks,
Anuj
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2014, 22:41
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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, but which is
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the
(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the
telephone, which has become
(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, other than what it is,

Meaning : Marconi’s conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation and he thought radio as a substitute for telephone. But radio became a tool for mass communication

Option A) Holding option A
Option B) If we remove the modifier “a tool for private conversation”. The sentence becomes
“Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone but which is”
which replaces telephone and makes the sentence nonsensical.
Option C) Holding option C)
Option D) Same issue as that of Option B)
Option E) “other than what it is” is wordy and can be replaced with instead.

I am confused between Option A and option C)

Meaning analysis of Option A):
Marconi conceptualized radio as a substitute of telephone. Now the modifier “a tool for private
tense is present for the second half – which seems ok as the statement is made in present tense.

Meaning analysis of Option C)
Marconi conceptualized radio as a tool for private conversation and radio could substitute for the telephone. “it” logically refers to radio.
tense is present perfect -> that seems ok as the radio has been working as a mass communication since inception.

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2014, 13:32
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Hi Kinjal,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

The modifier "a tool for private conversation" is a culprit in this choice. This modifier is intended for "radio", Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation. However, "it" (radio) has become just the opposite, "a tool for communicating with a large, public audience". This is the intended meaning of the sentence that is correctly expressed by Choice C.

Also, the use of "is" is not appropriate in Choice A. Use of simple present present tense makes this a universal fact. In choice C, "has become" clearly shows that what it was meant to be but what it has eventually become.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2014, 12:00
Will go with C :

The statement requires a contrast. Only A and C seem to Provide the required contrast. (use of Instead)
In A, 'Marconi’s conception...was as' is wrong. Hence C.

Please correct me If My approach is incorrect.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2014, 20:02
marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

Hi e-gmat,

My analysis on this question. Could you please review and let me know if my thought process is correct -

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

Analysis : IC, Noun + Noun Modifier; Adverb, IC
Error :
1. a tool for private conversation is N+NM, hence can modify radio or telephone (either)
2. Instead, it is – parallel IC, hence it refers back to parallel noun of “Marconi’s conception” instead of radio

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

Analysis: IC, Noun + Noun Mod, But + IC
Which in this case would refer to radio (noun in parallel IC) or conversation (closest noun)?

(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Analysis: IC + that + modifier; instead, IC
Correct option

(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, modifier
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
2. Which refer to telephone

(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, <<can’t get rest of the structure
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2014, 05:42
conceived of is idiom and

A is noun form -->out , D and E out ( conceived to be )

C is better parallelism than B
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 23:11
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Mission2012 wrote:
marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

Hi e-gmat,

My analysis on this question. Could you please review and let me know if my thought process is correct -

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

Analysis : IC, Noun + Noun Modifier; Adverb, IC
Error :
1. a tool for private conversation is N+NM, hence can modify radio or telephone (either)
2. Instead, it is – parallel IC, hence it refers back to parallel noun of “Marconi’s conception” instead of radio

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

Analysis: IC, Noun + Noun Mod, But + IC
Which in this case would refer to radio (noun in parallel IC) or conversation (closest noun)?

(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Analysis: IC + that + modifier; instead, IC
Correct option

(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, modifier
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
2. Which refer to telephone

(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, <<can’t get rest of the structure
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom

Hi Nishant,
Thank you for posting your query here and a very good analysis I must say!

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:
• instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

OPTION A: Incorrect

1) The way this sentence is worded, it suggests that Marconi’s conception was a substitute for the telephone. This meaning is absolutely illogical because an idea cannot be a substitute for a tool. From the context, we can understand that the radio was conceived as a substitute for the telephone. Hence, this sentence has meaning error.
2) The pronoun “it” seems to illogically refer to “Marconi’s conception”.

The Noun + Noun modifier “a tool for private conversation” modifies “telephone” correctly, since logically we know that radio is not a tool for private conversation.

OPTION B: Incorrect

1) “but” acts as a parallel market in this choice and is followed by a “which” clause. However, this “which” clause is not parallel to anything that lies on the left side of the marker.
2) Also, it is not clear what the modifier “which” refers to in this sentence. It can either refer to “radio” or to “telephone”.

As you have mentioned, “but” should be followed by an independent clause. However, the clause starting with “which” is not an independent clause.

OPTION C: Correct

This option changes the subject from “Marconi’s conception” to “Marconi”. This removes the meaning error of the original sentence.
Also, “it” in the second clause clearly refers to radio.

Here, “that” doesn’t refer to radio. It refers to “a tool for private conversation”.

OPTION D: Incorrect

1) “Conceived of X to be Y” is incorrect idiomatic usage. The correct usage is “conceived of X as Y”.
2) The relative pronoun modifier “which” seems to modify “telephone”. This gives an illogical meaning.
Note that, “which” can’t jump over “to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone” and modify “radio” since this modifier is not one unified phrase.

OPTION E: Incorrect

1) This choice repeats the idiom error of option D.
2) The phrase “other than what” is wordy and redundant. It gives the meaning similar to “precisely the opposite”.

Hope this helps!
Deepak
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2014, 01:24
The question is basically testing Idiom and Pronoun usage.

A: Conception X was as Y
B: Conceived X as Y
C: Conceived X as Y
D: Conceived X to be Y
E: Conceived X to be Y

Logic: Correct Idiom: Conceived X as Y. So A, D and E are eliminated

B: "which" : goes back to 'conversation' rather than back to 'radio'.

E: Correct. Correct Idiom, Present Perfect tense and no ambiguity.

Hope it helps!

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 01:04
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Can someone please explain the error in option B. I read MGMAT and BTG explanation regarding the same but its still not clear to me.

Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

As per Mitch:
Quote:
http://www.beatthegmat.com/og-12th-ed-marconi-conception-t62687.html#280168
In B, the pronoun which seems to refer -- incorrectly -- to the telephone, but the radio is the tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
>> Request someone to explain it further with example.

As per Ron
Quote:
http://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/forums/post36053.html#p36053
that choice says "BUT which..."
this means that "which..." is the second part of a parallel structure. the first part of this parallel structure is "a tool for private conversation".
BOTH parts of this parallel structure modify "telephone". (this is how parallel structures work: both/all parts of them MUST have the same grammatical function.)

After cutting the fluff:
as a substitute for the telephone
but which
is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

Does this mean
X conceived of Y as Z but <..>
What follows but shall be || to Z.

Option C : Correct:
Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone;
instead, it has become precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 06:15
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JarvisR wrote:
Can someone please explain the error in option B.

Hi JarvisR, B mentions: ....but which is...

Whenever we have this kind of structure (but which, and that, but that etc.), there has to be a corresponding parallel structure to the left of the conjunction (and/but).

In B, there is no corresponding parallel structure on the left hand side of but. Hence, B is not correct.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 06:23
EducationAisle wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
Can someone please explain the error in option B.

Hi JarvisR, B mentions: ....but which is...

Whenever we have this kind of structure (but which, and that, but that etc.), there has to be a corresponding parallel structure to the left of the conjunction (and/but).

In B, there is no corresponding parallel structure on the left hand side of but. Hence, B is not correct.

I appreciate your inputs on the shared query.

This seems to be in line with Ron's explanation. Can u please confirm, if i understood it correctly (i have mentioned the structure breakdown in my original post).

Also, some of the posts point that "which" links to telephone. To me its ambiguous, can be telephone/radio.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 06:42
Hi JarvisR, you mention:

What follows but shall be || to Z.

As I mentioned in my above post, what follows but is: which is..., and so, there has to be a corresponding which structure on the Left hand side of but.

Currently, there is no "which" structure on the Left hand side of but. In other words, what follows but is actually not parallel to anything; in fact, that is the problem with B.

So, it would not be appropriate to mention that what follows but is parallel to Z.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 06:50
Thanks Ashish. Actually even i m mentioned the same.
Quote:
X conceived of Y as Z but <..>
What follows but shall be || to Z.

But in B, "which is" is not || to "as a substitute for the telephone " .

Can u also share ur views on query#2:
Quote:
Also, some of the posts point that "which" links to telephone. To me its ambiguous, can be telephone/radio.

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 07:09
JarvisR wrote:
Can u also share ur views on query#2:
Quote:
Also, some of the posts point that "which" links to telephone. To me its ambiguous, can be telephone/radio.

Hi JarvisR, I think we are doing a bit of circulation argumentation here. What I have been saying is that which is not really parallel to anything. So, it's a moot point discussing what "which" is referring to.

In other words, had there been a which structure on the LHS of but, then whatever the which on the LHS was referring to, which on the RHS would refer to the same entity. Since we don't have a which on the LHS, we can't figure out what "which" on the RHS is referring to.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2015, 05:19
I believe that the construction is perfectly fine:

The conception was something but it has become something else. It denotes the change that has happened.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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15 May 2015, 17:54
See A as B/ regard A as B/ think A as B/ conceive of A as B/ refer to A as B

Only C works

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2015, 12:32
C) looks good

'Conceive of X as' is the right idiom
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2015, 12:32

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