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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon

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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.


(A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,


Verbal Question of The Day: Day 216: Sentence Correction


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OG16 SC113
Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

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Originally posted by marine on 20 Sep 2004, 05:59.
Last edited by Bunuel on 26 Oct 2018, 06:00, edited 5 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2018, 23:02
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This is another question that’s at the top of my list of the most unsatisfying official GMAT SC questions ever produced.

I’ll be honest: my first instinct is to eliminate the correct answer because of pronoun ambiguity, but that’s a bad idea: pronoun ambiguity is not an absolute rule on the GMAT (more on that in this video), and there are far worse errors in the other answer choices.

And that’s classic GMAT right there: there aren’t a ton of absolute RULES that ALWAYS apply on the GMAT, but it’s always true that you’ll want to eliminate the four worst answer choices. Whatever you’re left with might not be great, but it’ll be correct enough.

Quote:
A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

That “it” jumps out at me right away. It just doesn’t seem awesome: “it” could refer to “conversation” or “tool” or “telephone” or “substitute” or “radio” or “conception of the radio.” Actually, since “it” is the subject of the second full clause in the sentence, that pronoun most likely refers to the subject of the first full clause, “Marconi’s conception of the radio.” (Again, more on these pronoun issues in this video.)

Of course, “it” logically needs to refer to “radio.” So we definitely have a pronoun ambiguity situation on our hands, but pronoun ambiguity isn’t an absolute crime. So I wouldn’t eliminate (A) based only on the pronoun issue.

But there’s also a meaning issue with (A): “Marconi’s conception… was as a substitute for the telephone…” Wait, no. Logically, the radio is the substitute for the telephone – the “conception of the radio” definitely is not the substitute.

So I’m not 100% comfortable eliminating (A) based on the pronoun ambiguity alone, but the logical problem at the beginning of the sentence gives us a reason to ditch (A) with confidence.

Quote:
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

This is such a confusing mess that it’s hard for me to explain why it’s a confusing mess. The whole problem is “but which is”, a phrase that seems to be (awkwardly) referring to the telephone. But that doesn’t make sense: “the telephone… but which is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.”

Nope. It’s the radio that's the tool for communicating with a large, public audience – not the telephone. If we switched “which” to “it” (or “instead it”), then we might be OK, but (B) in its current form just doesn’t make sense.

Quote:
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Like (A), (C) has some potential pronoun ambiguity: “it” would refer to “the radio” or “private conversation” or “substitute” or “telephone.” But again: pronoun ambiguity is NOT automatically wrong on the GMAT. And in this case, I think you could argue that the “it” isn’t even all that confusing.

And the thing is, I don’t see any other problems. The modifier “that could substitute for the telephone” seems to correctly modify “tool for private conversation.” I’m OK with the verb tense at the end of the underlined portion of the sentence: “[the radio] has become a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.” Sure, I guess we could say that the radio started to become a tool for mass communication long ago, and continues to become a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

Honestly, I’d be happier picking an answer choice that doesn’t have the pronoun ambiguity problem, but ONLY IF that answer choice doesn’t have more severe problems. (C) at least makes sense, and the pronoun ambiguity isn’t enough to eliminate it. So let’s keep the little booger for now.

Quote:
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

(D) has nice, clear problems. The modifier beginning with “which” is just plain wrong: “which has become a tool for communicating with a large, public audience” seems to modify “the telephone”, and that makes no sense at all.

And for whatever it’s worth, “conceived… to be” is not the correct idiom. It should be “conceived… as.” But don’t lose too much sleep over idioms, since there are around 25,000 of them in English.

Anyway, (D) is out.

Quote:
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

For starters, we have the same idiom problem as in (D). But then there’s just a messy construction later in the sentence: “Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone…., other than what it is, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.”

Huh? “Other than what it is”? That’s a mess, and the contrast isn’t clear between Marconi’s conception of the radio and what it actually is: (C) much more clearly states that the radio is instead a tool for mass communication.

So (E) is gone, and we’re left with (C). So pronoun ambiguity isn’t ideal, but it’s not automatically your enemy, either.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2010, 00:18
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D and E gone because of wrong idiom, -conceived of to be -

A gone because of -conception of as -

B is gone because of very ambiguous reference of - which - . -Which - should point to the radio as per the essence of the passage, but here, seems to point to the telephone or the conversation or a tool, every thing other than the radio.

C is the lone winner
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2006, 21:33
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C

A, D and E are out. Correct idiomn is "concieved of X as Y....." where X and Y are nouns or noun phrases.

Out of B and C, C is fare better.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2010, 02:07
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Does the pronoun modifier - that - always have to modify the noun just before it?

I like ground coffee from India that is very enticing

I believe this sentence to be correct although India may not be very enticing.

Should a pronoun always refer to the subject of the earlier sentence? Not necessarily, It may also stand for the object.

Last week the mail order company sent me a book on grammar; unfortunately it contained anything but grammar.

In this sentence, what does the - it - refer to? The mail- order company? Nay, far from it;

I believe that context is also in contention and not the structure alone.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2014, 14:32
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The modifier "a tool for private conversation" is a culprit in this choice. This modifier is intended for "radio", Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation. However, "it" (radio) has become just the opposite, "a tool for communicating with a large, public audience". This is the intended meaning of the sentence that is correctly expressed by Choice C.

Also, the use of "is" is not appropriate in Choice A. Use of simple present present tense makes this a universal fact. In choice C, "has become" clearly shows that what it was meant to be but what it has eventually become.

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2006, 09:14
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It's C.

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

- "conceived of" is a correct idiom
- "substitute for" is a correct idiom
- 'tool for private conversation' is || with 'tool for communicating'.
- "it" is used for radio.

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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2014, 09:34
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Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks



Hi Nitinaka19,

Answer 1: The word “instead” does not make clause because it is an “adverb”. For example,

Slowly, he finished the hot chocolate.

This sentence is an independent clause. Yes, it starts with the adverb “slowly”. However, adjectives and adverbs do not make a clause a Dependent clause.

Answer 2: Well yes, in Choice B, “a tool for private conversation modifies “telephone”. However, Choice B is not incorrect for this modifier. It is incorrect for the use of “which”. Notice that “which” is preceded by a parallel marker “but”. Now this “which” clause is not parallel to anything in the sentence. That’s the error in Choice B.

Answer C: In Choice C, the “that” clause modifies “a tool for private conversation” because grammatically, that’s the entity that precedes the Relative Pronoun “that”. However, logically it modifies “radio” because the sentence says that Marconi conceived of radio as a tool…. This means radio = a tool for private conversation. So logically “that” refers to “radio” as well.

You can take a look at OG13#6 where another Noun Modifier (Verb-ed Modifier) grammatically refers to the preceding Noun Entity that in essence refers back to the Subject of the sentence.

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2005, 13:52
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A is just fine...


A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

A is fine.. it clearly refers to Marconi’s conception

B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

- what does which refer to here..

C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
- out , bad restrictive clause. Seems to indicate that private conversation could substitute for the telephone.

D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
- out, sentence has a different meaning. Seems to say that private conversation is a substitute for the telephone and which clause is also weird. No clear referrent...

E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

- weird constructionl, other than what it is....
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New post 16 Dec 2013, 14:16
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gmat2013s wrote:
105. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

CONFUSION BETWEEN ANS CHOICE B & C [Error analysis]

Pronoun - Why in ans choice B - Which [ DC ] cant refer to radio
How ans choice C- It in IC 2 refers back to radio?
Modifier- Also there is modifier placement [ a tool for private conversation ] issue with original choice and answer choice C ? Where the modifier should be placed ?
Tense - Use of present perfect tense in correct answer choice C. Can I not use is as mentioned in the original choice and answer choice B ?

Meaning analysis

1. Marconi had a conception of the radio that it could be used as a substitute for telephone
2. But the use of radio is precisely the opposite

Dear gmat2013s,
I'm happy to help. :-)

Question #1
In (B), "which is ..." begins a modifying clause. There are a few problems here. First of all, a modifying clause generally touches the noun is modifies --- the Modifier Touch Rule, and this clause doesn't touch "radio." See this link for more on the Modifier Touch Rule:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers- ... orrection/
Second, the GMAT uses "which" exclusively for non-restrictive, non-vital modifiers, so this doesn't fit here. For more on these, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/that-vs-which-on-the-gmat/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/
Finally, the use of the "which" clause does something funky to the parallelism. It would be perfectly fine to have two "as" prepositions in parallel, a second one in parallel with "as a tool ..." It would also be perfectly fine to have two independent clauses, as (C) has. The structure in (B) though,
conceived of A as B, but which ...
It is certainly not parallel, and because of this, it feels awkward. We know that the "which" should modify "radio", but that's way over in another part of the sentence, so the antecedent of "which" is grammatically unclear. This is a very poor design for the sentence.

Question #2
Unlike a modifier, a pronoun can appear in a distant part of a sentence, not touching the noun to which it refers. That is a HUGE difference between pronouns and modifiers. After the "but", the "which" is very strange, because it's not touching the thing it modifies, but this is no problem for the pronoun "it."
What is the antecedent of the pronoun "it" in (C)? Well, in the first half of the sentence, there are a few singular nouns, but I would really say that "radio" is the star and focus of the first half. If you had to sum up in one word what the topic of the first half of the sentence was, it's absolutely unambiguous that this one word would be "radio." Therefore, when the "it" appears in the second half, it's absolutely unambiguous that it refers to "radio." What justifies this exclusive focus is not anything in the grammar, but the logic and meaning. Folks mistakenly think that GMAT SC is only about grammar. Not true. Logic and meaning are much much more important than grammar.

Question #3
(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, ...
Think about this. Here, the phrase "a tool for private conversation" modifies "telephone", explaining to us what a telephone is. That's ridiculous! What person over the age of six need any explanation about what a telephone is? This is entirely absurd!!
Also, think: did Marconi say "I want to invent a new substitute"? Or did he say, "I want to invent a new tool"? There's something subtly illogical about Marconi conceiving of his invention primarily as a substitute. That's really a level of subtlety a little beyond what the GMAT would test, but notice that incorrect answers on the GMAT SC, in addition to having something 100% clear and bonafide wrong, also are sprinkled with these subtle logical mistakes.
Now, think about (C)'s phrasing:
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone...
This is far superior. Now, the phrase "a tool for private conversation" is how Marconi thought of the radio ---- that's surprising and interesting, because it's different from the way we think about the radio! It's placement here is interesting and thought-provoking. By contrast, it's placement in (B) is mind-numbingly uninteresting. Marconi invents a "tool", and this "tool" can also be a "substitute" --- far more logical.

Question #4
The choice of tense is not black & white. A few different options would be completely acceptable. It would be 100% correct in this context to say:
(a) ... instead, it is precisely the opposite, ...
(b) ... instead, it became precisely the opposite, ..
(c) ... instead, it has become precisely the opposite, ..
The GMAT would not consider any of those "wrong" in the sense of something that would make an answer choice incorrect. Of these three, the present perfect, the third option, is the best. The present perfect tense shows an action that began in the past and, in some way, still continues to the present moment. It is perfect for a situation in which an action happened in the past but the influence of the action continues to the present moment --- in that sense, the action is still "with us." It was a while ago, probably in Marconi's own time, that folks figured out that the radio would not work as a private communication device, and it became a tool for large-scale broadcasting. That happened a while ago, but the effect of that revisioning is still with us, insofar as we still listen to radio and use in precisely the same way in the present day. This situation makes the present perfect tense ideal, although, once again, neither of the other two would be "wrong" on the GMAT. Here's a blog on the perfect tenses:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-verb- ... ct-tenses/

For all these reasons, (B) is highly flawed, and (C) is a wonderfully clear & logical choice.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2014, 23:41
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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation; instead, it is
(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, but which is
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the
telephone; instead, it has become
(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the
telephone, which has become
(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, other than what it is,

Meaning : Marconi’s conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation and he thought radio as a substitute for telephone. But radio became a tool for mass communication

Option A) Holding option A
Option B) If we remove the modifier “a tool for private conversation”. The sentence becomes
“Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone but which is”
which replaces telephone and makes the sentence nonsensical.
Option C) Holding option C)
Option D) Same issue as that of Option B)
Option E) “other than what it is” is wordy and can be replaced with instead.

I am confused between Option A and option C)

Meaning analysis of Option A):
Marconi conceptualized radio as a substitute of telephone. Now the modifier “a tool for private
conversation” provides more information about telephone. “it” logically refers to radio.
tense is present for the second half – which seems ok as the statement is made in present tense.

Meaning analysis of Option C)
Marconi conceptualized radio as a tool for private conversation and radio could substitute for the telephone. “it” logically refers to radio.
tense is present perfect -> that seems ok as the radio has been working as a mass communication since inception.

Please clarify.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2015, 07:15
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JarvisR wrote:
Can someone please explain the error in option B.

Hi JarvisR, B mentions: ....but which is...

Whenever we have this kind of structure (but which, and that, but that etc.), there has to be a corresponding parallel structure to the left of the conjunction (and/but).

In B, there is no corresponding parallel structure on the left hand side of but. Hence, B is not correct.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2017, 00:30
2
Hi,
I'm not an expert,but let me try.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
-- modifier error : "a tool for private conversation" is supposed to refer to radio

B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
-- same as option A

C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
-- This is our guy.Meaning is clear."it" refers to radio.

D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
-- not sure but i think it's an idiom usage;conceive of something as..;it is the radio,not telephone,that has become a device for public audience.

E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is
-- not sure but i think it's an idiom usage;conceive of something as..;modifier error : "a tool for private conversation" is supposed to refer to radio
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2005, 02:21
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marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,


we have two clauses separated by a semi-colon - and the second clause needs to be in contrast with the first.
Use of a transitional tag "instead" brings out the contrast..and has become says that radio, invented by Marconi, is still in existence.

C is the best
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2005, 05:42
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marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,


Go for C.

(A) Marconi’s conception of is wrong

All the usage of 'which' is wrong, B,D is out.

(E) 'other than what it is' is awkward
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2010, 00:01
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If anyone answers C, could you please explain the use of that and it?

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Aren't noun modifiers such as which and that(when that is used to modify a noun) supposed to be placed right next to the noun they are modifying? I can see that 'that' is modifying radio from the context of the sentence, but I want to know more about the rules governing exceptions like this one.

I know that when two clauses are connected by a conjunction, you can use a pronoun to refer back to the subject of the first clause. In this case, Marconi is the subject which can not be represented by the pronoun it, so you may assume it is referring to radio. I remember running into several questions that are very unforgiving about the use of pronoun like this, so I am a bit puzzled about the use of it here. I don't recall any from top of my head, but I will post them if I come across another.

Thanks in advance for your help.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2010, 00:20
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scheol79 wrote:
If anyone answers C, could you please explain the use of that and it?

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become


conceived of X as Y- correct idiom. => only C and B are contenders.

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

radio as a tool that could substitute for the telephone -> this is the correct usage. But we may insert 'for private conversation' as a mission critical modifier. Read MGMAT SC advance chapters for this.

"It is used for radio". You can not use "it" for either tool or telephone.

Do not consider the pronoun ambiguity a hard and fast rule for the elimination.

You are here to select the best answer among 5 choices, not to select the best answer choice in the universe.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2017, 00:40
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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
1) Marconi’s conception (subject)………………..was (verb)
2) Phrase “a tool for private conversation” refers to telephone but it actually refers to radio
Marconi conceived of radio as a tool for private conversation but instead it is a tool for communicating with a large audience.
3) It is illogical to say that Marconi’s conception was as a tool……………


A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
Incorrect

B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
Again incorrect placement of the phrase ‘ a tool……….’

C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
‘that’ when used as a subject of the dependent clause refers to the closes noun but in this (I think) the usage is fine because ‘for private conversation’ cannot be logically placed anywhere else.
So that refers to tool. GMATNinja is this fine according to you?
Use of present perfect ‘has become’ is also fine because it’s still true. Radio is still a tool for private conversation.

Correct choice.

D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
Conceived to be is incorrect.
Conceive of someone or something as ………..is correct.

E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,
Incorrect for the reasons stated above.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2017, 01:00
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"it" in the second clause can refer to "tool" or "telephone" so it can cause ambiguity
anyone agree with me?
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 10:09
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AsadAbu wrote:
Hi Expert,
In C, ''it'' has been used for ''Radio''. Here, ''radio'' is the object of preposition ''of''. As far I know, object of the preposition can't be subject anymore in the sentence. If the red part makes sense, why ''it'' has been used as antecedent of ''radio''?
Thanks__

Hi AsadAbu, you might be mixing two things here.

Object of the preposition can't be subject in a given clause. That clause in this sentence is:

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone

However, we cannot apply this rule across clauses.

In option C, instead, it has become... marks the start of a new Independent clause. So, we cannot apply the prepositional phrase rule in this clause (simply because we don't have the prepositional phrase in this clause; the prepositional phrase was in the previous clause).

The question you perhaps want to ask is:

Can a pronoun (it in this case) refer to an object of a prepositional phrase? The answer is yes. There are numerous such instances in various official examples.
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Re: Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephon   [#permalink] 08 Oct 2018, 10:09

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