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# Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue,

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Director
Joined: 14 Jan 2007
Posts: 774
Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue, [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2007, 02:25
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Maria won this year’s local sailboat race by beating
Sue, the winner in each of the four previous years. We
can conclude from this that Maria trained hard.
The conclusion follows logically if which one of the
following is assumed?

(A) Sue did not train as hard as Maria trained.
(B) If Maria trained hard, she would win the
sailboat race.
(C) Maria could beat a four-time winner only if she
trained hard.
(D) If Sue trained hard, she would win the sailboat
race.
(E) Sue is usually a faster sailboat racer than Maria.
Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Jun 2007
Posts: 344

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06 Jul 2007, 02:33
vshaunak@gmail.com wrote:
Maria won this year’s local sailboat race by beating
Sue, the winner in each of the four previous years. We
can conclude from this that Maria trained hard.
The conclusion follows logically if which one of the
following is assumed?

(A) Sue did not train as hard as Maria trained.
(B) If Maria trained hard, she would win the
sailboat race.
(C) Maria could beat a four-time winner only if she
trained hard.
(D) If Sue trained hard, she would win the sailboat
race.
(E) Sue is usually a faster sailboat racer than Maria.

It should be B.
Manager
Joined: 24 Jun 2006
Posts: 129

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06 Jul 2007, 13:33
I go for C
if not assumed the conclusion does not follow
Manager
Joined: 29 Jan 2007
Posts: 102

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06 Jul 2007, 14:09
1
KUDOS
C it is .
Use of word "only if" .
If there are more reasons other than hard training when Maria can beat sue then we cannot conclude that training hard is the only reason for Maria's win
Director
Joined: 29 Jul 2006
Posts: 851

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07 Jul 2007, 07:12
B is a trap and weakens the argument.
Non-Human User
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 10319
Re: Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue, [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2014, 09:58
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Re: Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue, [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2014, 07:23
1
KUDOS
Maria won this year’s local sailboat race by beating Sue, the winner in each of the four previous years. We can conclude from this that Maria trained hard.
The conclusion follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?

This is a CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP-----
Assumptions- Training hard ONLY led to Maria's win.......
Nothing else led to Maria's win

(A) Sue did not train as hard as Maria trained....cant say what applies for Sue... we only know what applies for Maria.
(B) If Maria trained hard, she would win the sailboat race.....cant say about future..... this time she won because she trained hard...WOULD does not invoke a total sence of certainty.....
(C) Maria could beat a four-time winner only if she trained hard..... .... Training hard ONLY led to Maria's win.......
Nothing else led to Maria's win.....correct

(D) If Sue trained hard, she would win the sailboat race..... ..cant say what applies for Sue... we only know what applies for Maria.
(E) Sue is usually a faster sailboat racer than Maria.......not an assumption.

IMO "C"...............

Senior Manager
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Re: Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue, [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2014, 15:02
Agree with C.

If X happens than Y will happen;

here it only works in one direction.

therefore, if Y happens, than X did not necessary happen too.

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Re: Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue, [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2015, 03:15
Paris75 wrote:
Agree with C.

If X happens than Y will happen;

here it only works in one direction.

therefore, if Y happens, than X did not necessary happen too.

not thAn, thEn dear

Otherwise, C as well. This is the conditional clause that validates the conclusion without a doubt.
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Director
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Re: Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue, [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 07:15
Now let's look at B vs C.

B) If Maria trained hard, she would win the race.

Does this prove that Maria MUST HAVE trained hard? No - just because training hard is one way to win the race doesn't mean that it's the ONLY way to win the race. For example, maybe Sue broke her leg at the starting line. Since (B) doesn't eliminate other possible paths to victory, it doesn't PROVE the conclusion.

C) Maria could beat a four-time winner ONLY IF she trained hard.

Well, we know that Maria beat Sue, a four-time winner. If we add in a new piece of evidence that the ONLY WAY to do so is to train hard, then it MUST BE TRUE that Maria trained hard. Accordingly, (C) proves the conclusion.
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Manager
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Re: Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue, [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2018, 00:32
Okay ! so the contention of doubt is between B and C.
Before that, always remember that winning does not necessarily mean that the person has worked hard, may be the competitor gave up or was not prepared.

B: "if" .. This is a mistaken reversal of what is needed. We know this, but does it necessarily mean that she worked hard? If leads us to a probabilistic situation
C: Adding this choice to premise takes us to the conclusion.
Re: Maria won this year s local sailboat race by beating Sue,   [#permalink] 21 Jan 2018, 00:32
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