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# Markers in Parallelism

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e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2930

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23 Dec 2013, 14:37
ankurjohar wrote:
Hello Team,

I am able to eliminate all wrong choices and left with A and D as the contender option:

Eliminated A because it says

Scientists are now able to create
retaining
altering

1. list is not parallel
2. marker list is starting with 'ing' modifier, i felt it means because of retaining X, scientists are able to create. Which is again not the intended meaning of the sentence. Hence, incorrect.

Can you please tell the right answer and please explain what is wrong in my elimination process.

Regards,
Ankur

Hi Ankur,

The detailed solution to this question has been posted just a few posts above. Please refer to that post for any further clarification.

Hope this helps.
Wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
Thanks.
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24 Dec 2013, 18:17

Thanks for awesome articles - this article and many others - that you and e-gmat team have posted. Now coming to my doubt about the questions:

Q1 - I chose A. I discarded B, because I thought "grayed and white bones" change the meaning. Grayed - past participle - implies bones have been greyed by something or someone. The original statement, however, never says that. I later realized - only after reading the explanation that shined is wrong too. Please clarify, if the 2nd statement were -

[color=#003471]grayed and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps

- would it be correct?[/color]

PS: Additional question - not related to original question - Is my if then construction in the sentence above is right(red colored)?

Q2 - I chose C, but I am confused between A & C. Do we necessarily need "did" in this sentence. The sentence says -

Researchers from the XYZ notified about something to the FDA earlier than researchers from the ABC.

I think above sentence can only mean - Researchers from XYZ notified earlier than Researchers from the ABC - and not researchers from XYZ notified to FDA earlier than to researchers from the ABC. IMO - to imply the 2nd meaning use of "to" is necessary after "earlier than." Although I understand C is better, I am not sure whether A is wrong."

egmat wrote:
prep wrote:
1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shining is not parallel to discarded. The former is a present participle and the latter, past participle.
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shined/discarded and grayed - all past participles behaving as adjectives
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning

Hi @prep,

Your analysis for the second question is absolutely perfect. However, you have not selected the correct answer for the first one.

Choice B is not the correct answer of the first question. The correct answer is A.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Correct. Notice that all the entities are noun phrases. They all start with adjective followed by a noun. Yes, all the adjectives are different in structure – “gray” and “white” are colors, “shining” has “ing” construction, and “discarded” ends with “ed”. But all these three entities are adjectives because all these three expressions modify their following nouns. Hence, despite being different in structure, all these noun entities are parallel to each other because all the starting words act as adjectives, no matter what form they are in.

B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Incorrect. “shining” is the correct adjective to precede a noun entity.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

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07 Dec 2015, 07:50
egmat wrote:
prep wrote:
1. A male bowerbird uses just about anything ̶ gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps ̶ to decorate his courtyard to attract a female.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shining is not parallel to discarded. The former is a present participle and the latter, past participle.
B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps - shined/discarded and grayed - all past participles behaving as adjectives
C. graying and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning
D. gray and white bones, shiny pebbles, and discarding plastic figurines and bottle caps - discarding distorts meaning

Hi prep,

Your analysis for the second question is absolutely perfect. However, you have not selected the correct answer for the first one.

Choice B is not the correct answer of the first question. The correct answer is A.

A. gray and white bones, shining pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Correct. Notice that all the entities are noun phrases. They all start with adjective followed by a noun. Yes, all the adjectives are different in structure – “gray” and “white” are colors, “shining” has “ing” construction, and “discarded” ends with “ed”. But all these three entities are adjectives because all these three expressions modify their following nouns. Hence, despite being different in structure, all these noun entities are parallel to each other because all the starting words act as adjectives, no matter what form they are in.

B. grayed and white bones, shined pebbles, and discarded plastic figurines and bottle caps: Incorrect. “shining” is the correct adjective to precede a noun entity.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I skimmed over the meaning part and hit parallelism, but you pulled me into the meaning! This is a good question for the hasty and impatient ones like me!
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02 Feb 2016, 22:13
Hi,

There's one error here.

Between ... and... is not necessarily a dual word thing

Quoting from GMATClub grammar book

"Business negotiations between the governments of the United States, China and South America are going well despite cultural differences."

So whenever we are talking about 2 or more proper nouns, we can use between.

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03 Feb 2016, 06:45
arirux92 wrote:
Hi,

There's one error here.

Between ... and... is not necessarily a dual word thing

Quoting from GMATClub grammar book

"Business negotiations between the governments of the United States, China and South America are going well despite cultural differences."

So whenever we are talking about 2 or more proper nouns, we can use between.

Yes arirux92, I agree with your point to an extent. The general rule is as follows:

Use between, when distinct objects ( may be 2 or more) are referred to - I may select any one between strawberry,chocolate or vanilla flavor.

Use among, when a group as a whole is referred to - I may select any one among these flavors.
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03 Feb 2016, 07:25
arirux92 wrote:
Hi,

There's one error here.

Between ... and... is not necessarily a dual word thing

Quoting from GMATClub grammar book

"Business negotiations between the governments of the United States, China and South America are going well despite cultural differences."

So whenever we are talking about 2 or more proper nouns, we can use between.

My understanding was different. Can you give an official example on this? Or are you suggesting that "between" can be used for more than 2 "proper" nouns (but not "common" nouns)?
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27 Apr 2016, 00:28
Hi E-Gmat team
Thanks for excellent article.
I have basic question

Hundreds of species of fish generate and discharge electric currents, in bursts or as steady electric fields around their bodies, using their power to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or to communicate and navigate....

This is the correct answer. Can the "to" be outside as well ?
I mean...
Hundreds of species of fish generate and discharge electric currents, in bursts or as steady electric fields around their bodies, using their power to find and attack prey, defend themselves, or communicate and navigate.

I am always confused awith AND, BUT, OR.
Example - X AND Y. X, Y have to be parallel. But can the common things be taken out or we have to repeat? And where should we break the sentence (at the verb ?)

Thanks
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28 Apr 2016, 11:06
crescendo85 wrote:
Hi E-Gmat team
Thanks for excellent article.
I have basic question

Hundreds of species of fish generate and discharge electric currents, in bursts or as steady electric fields around their bodies, using their power to find and attack prey, to defend themselves, or to communicate and navigate....

This is the correct answer. Can the "to" be outside as well ?
I mean...
Hundreds of species of fish generate and discharge electric currents, in bursts or as steady electric fields around their bodies, using their power to find and attack prey, defend themselves, or communicate and navigate.

I am always confused awith AND, BUT, OR.
Example - X AND Y. X, Y have to be parallel. But can the common things be taken out or we have to repeat? And where should we break the sentence (at the verb ?)

Thanks

For the above conjunctions (AND, BUT, OR), it does not matter whether you use the common items once or twice:

For example:

....to [(X) and (Y)]....
....[(to X) and (to Y)].....

Both would be correct.

In the first case the parallel items are X and Y - to is outside parallelism.
In the second case the parallel items are to X and to Y - to is inside parallelism.
Markers in Parallelism   [#permalink] 28 Apr 2016, 11:06

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