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# Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause

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Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2012, 20:45
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Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause of bad breath is bacteria
build-up on the tongue. The research also concludes that tongue scrapers, when used
properly, can eliminate up to 40% of the bacteria from the tongue. As the effectiveness of
tongue scrapers becomes more widely known, the market for less effective breath freshening
products, such as mints, gums, and sprays, will decline significantly. Which of the following
provides the best evidence that the analyst’s argument is flawed?
A) Some breath freshening products are advertised to eliminate up to 30% of the bacteria from
the tongue.
b) Tongue scrapers have already been on the market for a number of years.
c) Many dentists recommend regular flossing, and not the use of the tongue scraper, to combat
d) A recent survey shows that 94% of those who regularly purchase breath freshening products
are aware of the effectiveness of the tongue scraper.
e) Some people buy breath freshening products for reasons other than to fight bad breath.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: CR - Weaken - # 1 [#permalink]

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07 May 2012, 10:49
d) A recent survey shows that 94% of those who regularly purchase breath freshening products
are aware of the effectiveness of the tongue scraper.

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Re: CR - Weaken - # 1 [#permalink]

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07 May 2012, 19:26
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This is a causal reasoning.

The argument says

Knowing the effectiveness of scrapper (cause) ---------> Decrease in sales of less effective breath freshening
products, such as mints, gums, and sprays (effect)

Option D points out the flaw by saying that "When Cause occured, the EFFECT DID NOT Occur"

Knowing the effectiveness of scrapper -----> more than 94% of the people continue to buy less effective breath freshening products and this says that sales will not decrease.
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Re: Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 11:28
The market analyst concludes that the market for breath freshening products will
decline as the effectiveness of the tongue scraper becomes more widely known.
To show that this argument is flawed, we must attack one of two assumptions:
that consumers are primarily interested in products that are most effective in
fighting bad breath, or that consumers are currently unaware of the effectiveness
of the tongue scraper.
(A) This statement does not attack either one of the assumptions. In fact, it may
actually strengthen the argument by pointing out that some breath freshening
products are less effective than tongue scrapers at eliminating bacteria.
(B) This statement could weaken the argument by attacking the second
assumption (consumers are currently unaware of the tongue scraper). If the
tongue scraper has been on the market for a while, maybe consumers are
already aware of its effectiveness. However, just because the product is on the
market doesn't mean consumers are aware of its effectiveness. The analyst’s
conclusion states that as consumers learn about tongue scrapers, the market for
breath freshening products will decline, regardless of whether the tongue scraper
has already been on the market.
(C) While this certainly doesn’t help the market analyst’s case, we don’t know
what percentage of dentists recommend flossing over the tongue scraper, and
we can’t be sure how this recommendation affects the consumption of breath
freshening products.
(D) CORRECT. This statement weakens the argument by attacking one of the
main assumptions of the argument: people who use breath freshening products
don’t already know about the effectiveness of the tongue scraper. If 94% of those
scraper, and if these consumers have continued to purchase breath freshening
products, then only 6% of those who consume breath freshening products could
scrapers effectiveness in fighting bad breath. Even if all 6% stopped purchasing
the products, this would hardly create a “significant decline” in the market.
(E) This statement could weaken the argument by attacking the first assumption
(consumers are primarily interested in products that are most effective in fighting
bad breath). These particular consumers would not necessarily stop consuming
breath freshening products upon learning of a more effective product, such as
the tongue scraper. However, we have no information on what percentage of the
market these people represent.
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Re: Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2014, 07:23
GetThisDone wrote:
Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause of bad breath is bacteria
build-up on the tongue. The research also concludes that tongue scrapers, when used
properly, can eliminate up to 40% of the bacteria from the tongue. As the effectiveness of
tongue scrapers becomes more widely known, the market for less effective breath freshening
products, such as mints, gums, and sprays, will decline significantly. Which of the following
provides the best evidence that the analyst’s argument is flawed?
A) Some breath freshening products are advertised to eliminate up to 30% of the bacteria from
the tongue.
b) Tongue scrapers have already been on the market for a number of years.
c) Many dentists recommend regular flossing, and not the use of the tongue scraper, to combat
d) A recent survey shows that 94% of those who regularly purchase breath freshening products
are aware of the effectiveness of the tongue scraper.
e) Some people buy breath freshening products for reasons other than to fight bad breath.

Is the word " some " the deal breaker for option E ??
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Re: Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2016, 03:13
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Re: Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2017, 12:49
Conclusion :- market for breath freshening products will decline as the effectiveness of the tongue scraper becomes more widely known.
Weaken :- market for breath freshening products will not decline as the effectiveness of the tongue scraper becomes more widely known.
We are looking for a flaw in argument :-
The flaw in the argument hinges on a implied causal relationship between people knowing certain information, and changing their behaviour. Specifically, the argument is that if people know that tongue scraping is a good way to eliminate bad breath, they will stop purchasing other products (mints, gums, and sprays) for eliminating bad breath.

A recent survey shows that 94% of those who regularly purchase breath freshening products are aware of the effectiveness of the tongue scraper.

Answer D undermines the notion of a causal relationship between knowledge and behaviour change. It says the opposite: that most people who buy other products DO KNOW that tongue scraping is a good way to eliminate bad breath (but they buy the other products anyway).

Answer E is more of a follow up and counterpoint to answer D than it is evidence of a flaw in the passage. Maybe those people like to buy products that are green, for example. That "fact" does not point out a flaw in the argument, it just suggests a reason why people buy the other products.
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Re: Market Analyst: Recent research confirms that the main cause   [#permalink] 13 Apr 2017, 12:49
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