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# Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century

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Manager
Joined: 09 May 2017
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Location: Iran (Islamic Republic of)
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Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 29 May 2020, 07:36
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Project RC Butler 2020 - Participate and win GMAT Club Tests.
Passage # 100, Date: 20-May-2020
This post is a part of Project RC Butler 2020. Click here for Details

Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century, about the same time that fingerprints were first used for identification. Only in the last decade or two, however, have scientists begun to believe that genetic markers in blood and other bodily fluids may someday prove as useful in crime detection as fingerprints.

The standard ABO blood typing has long been used as a form of negative identification. Added sophistication came with the discovery of additional subgroups of genetic markers in blood and with the discovery that genetic markers are present not only in blood but also in other bodily fluids, such as perspiration and saliva.

These discoveries were of little use in crime detection, however, because of the circumstances in which police scientists must work. Rather than a plentiful sample of blood freshly drawn from a patient, the crime laboratory is likely to receive only a tiny fleck of dried blood of unknown age from an unknown “donor” on a shirt or a scrap of rag that has spent hours or days exposed to air, high temperature, and other contaminants.

British scientists found a method for identifying genetic markers more precisely in small samples. In this process, called electrophoresis, a sample is placed on a tray containing a gel through which an electrical current is then passed. A trained analyst reads the resulting patterns in the gel to determine the presence of various chemical markers.

Electrophoresis made it possible to identify several thousand subgroups of blood types rather than the twelve known before. However, the equipment and special training required were expensive. In addition, the process could lead to the destruction of evidence. For example, repeated tests of a blood-flecked shirt - one for each marker - led to increasing deterioration of the evidence and the cost of a week or more of laboratory time.

It remained for another British researcher, Brian Wrexall, to demonstrate that simultaneous analyses, using an inexpensive electrophoresis apparatus, could test for ten different genetic markers within a 24-hour period. This development made the study of blood and other fluid samples an even more valuable tool for crime detection.

1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with describing

A. How advances in crime detection methods have led to new discoveries in science
B. Various ways in which crime detection laboratories assist the police
C. The development of new scientific tools for use in crime detection
D. Areas of current research in the science of crime detection
E. Developments in genetic research and their application to crime detection

2. It can be inferred from the passage that electrophoresis resembles fingerprinting in that both

A. Provide a form of negative identification in crime detection
B. Were first developed by British scientists
C. May be used to help identify those who were present at the time of a crime
D. Were developed by scientists at around the same time
E. Must be employed almost immediately after a crime to be effective

3. The author sets off the word “‘donor’” (Highlighted) with quotation marks in order to

A. Emphasize that most of the blood samples received by crime laboratories come from anonymous sources
B. Underscore the contrast between the work done in a crime laboratory and that done in a blood bank
C. Call attention to the fact that, because of underfunding, crime laboratories are forced to rely on charitable contributions
D. Show that the word is being used in a technical, rather than a general, sense
E. Indicate that the blood samples received by crime laboratories are not given freely

4. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?

A. Is evidence of genetic markers in bodily fluids admissible in court?
B. Can electrophoresis be used to identify genetic markers in saliva?
C. How many subgroups of blood types are currently identifiable?
D. How accurate is the process of electrophoresis?
E. How many tests for genetic markers must police scientists run in order to establish the identity of a criminal?

5. According to the passage, all of the following may reduce the usefulness of a fluid sample for crime detection EXCEPT

A. The passage of time
B. Discoloration or staining
C. Exposure to heat
D. The small size of the sample
E. Exposure to contaminants

6. The passage implies that electrophoresis may help scientists determine

A. Whether or not a sample of blood could have come from a particular person
B. The age and condition of a dried specimen of blood or other bodily fluid
C. When and where a crime was probably committed
D. The cause of death in homicide cases
E. The age, gender, and ethnic background of an unknown criminal suspect

7. According to the passage, Brian Wrexall’s refinement of electrophoresis led to

A. More accurate test results
B. Easier availability of fluid samples
C. Wider applicability of genetic analysis
D. Increased costs of testing
E. More rapid testing

8. Which of the following statements about genetic markers can be inferred from the passage?

I. They carry an electrical charge.
II. They cannot be identified through standard ABO blood typing.
III. They were of no use in crime detection before the invention of electrophoresis.

A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III

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Originally posted by 09173140521 on 11 Aug 2019, 23:57.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 29 May 2020, 07:36, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1016).
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Joined: 14 Jan 2019
Posts: 12
Re: Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2019, 11:06
1
3. The author sets off the word “‘donor’” (line 18) with quotation marks in order to
A. Emphasize that most of the blood samples received by crime laboratories come from anonymous sources
B. Underscore the contrast between the work done in a crime laboratory and that done in a blood bank
C. Call attention to the fact that, because of underfunding, crime laboratories are forced to rely on charitable contributions
D. Show that the word is being used in a technical, rather than a general, sense
E. Indicate that the blood samples received by crime laboratories are not given freely

What kind of a sub standard OA is this? E seems far from correct. A is the most convincing option to me.
Director
Joined: 08 Aug 2017
Posts: 729
Re: Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2019, 17:04
3
8. Which of the following statements about genetic markers can be inferred from the passage?
They carry an electrical charge.
They cannot be identified through standard ABO blood typing.
They were of no use in crime detection before the invention of electrophoresis.
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III

Where is it written that sample carries electric charge? I think none of the options is correct.
If you are on otherside, please explain me.
Manager
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Posts: 224
Location: Iran (Islamic Republic of)
GMAT 1: 430 Q39 V12
Re: Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century  [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2019, 21:10
gvij2017

maybe from Electrophoresis we can conclude !
so far i did all 117 passage from rc1000 and unfortunately cannot see any mistake (maybe 1 or two) ...but it is obscure passage

ArihantJain18
you are right
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Re: Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century  [#permalink]

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20 May 2020, 07:59
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions
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Re: Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century  [#permalink]

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23 May 2020, 08:46
gvij2017 wrote:
8. Which of the following statements about genetic markers can be inferred from the passage?
They carry an electrical charge.
They cannot be identified through standard ABO blood typing.
They were of no use in crime detection before the invention of electrophoresis.
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III

Where is it written that sample carries electric charge? I think none of the options is correct.
If you are on otherside, please explain me.

Hi gvij2017,

I'm happy to help! The passage states that the sample of genetic markers is placed on a tray and electric current is passed through it. An analyst then reads the patterns formed. This clearly means that the genetic markers conduct electricity.
Another word for conducts is carries. Thus, this means that genetic markers carry electricity. Therefore, option (A) is the correct choice.
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Posts: 130
Re: Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century  [#permalink]

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23 May 2020, 08:54
ArihantJain18 wrote:
3. The author sets off the word “‘donor’” (line 18) with quotation marks in order to
A. Emphasize that most of the blood samples received by crime laboratories come from anonymous sources
B. Underscore the contrast between the work done in a crime laboratory and that done in a blood bank
C. Call attention to the fact that, because of underfunding, crime laboratories are forced to rely on charitable contributions
D. Show that the word is being used in a technical, rather than a general, sense
E. Indicate that the blood samples received by crime laboratories are not given freely

What kind of a sub standard OA is this? E seems far from correct. A is the most convincing option to me.

I second this.
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Re: Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century  [#permalink]

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29 May 2020, 07:50
1
abcdddddd wrote:
ArihantJain18 wrote:
3. The author sets off the word “‘donor’” (line 18) with quotation marks in order to
A. Emphasize that most of the blood samples received by crime laboratories come from anonymous sources
B. Underscore the contrast between the work done in a crime laboratory and that done in a blood bank
C. Call attention to the fact that, because of underfunding, crime laboratories are forced to rely on charitable contributions
D. Show that the word is being used in a technical, rather than a general, sense
E. Indicate that the blood samples received by crime laboratories are not given freely

What kind of a sub standard OA is this? E seems far from correct. A is the most convincing option to me.

I second this.

Hello

I don't have OE of this RC, question #3 is controversial no doubt, although A looks very close but both A and E can be explained logically by different point of views /angles, The source is 1000 series but the ultimate source of the passage is unknown, so no need to be panic on a single question like this, just skip it and move on. If you think E couldn't even near to the OA then your are definitely wrong, you are taking the word "freely" in option E just in wordy meaning and not the logical meaning which leads to the sense of the passage. A is definitely an easy one to pick up. I have added debatable OA tag with this RC and this question could be debatable.

Best regards
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Re: Methods for typing blood were developed around the turn of the century   [#permalink] 29 May 2020, 07:50