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Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perh

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08 Jul 2010, 07:56
Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perhaps 18 million Americans, who collectively lose 64 million workdays a year, and they cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost work time.

(A) year, and they cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost - they can refer to 'Americans' or 'workdays'

(B) year and thus cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost - thus is correct here. Americans lose workdays and thus (therefore) cost the nation \$50 billion (CORRECT)

(C) year, so as to cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost - 'so as to' is almost always incorrect in GMAT

(D) year that costs the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and - 'that' refers to year which is incorrect. The loss of \$64 billion dollars is because of the loss of workdays and not because of 'year'

(E) year, which thus cost the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and - 'which incorrectly refers to 'year'
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08 Jul 2010, 09:19
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08 Jul 2010, 17:57
I might be wrong, but I believe Cost is one of those tricky ones where Cost is singular and costs are plural.
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01 Jan 2011, 03:58
(B)

(A) year, and they cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
(B) year and thus cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
(C) year, so as to cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
(D) year that costs the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and <missing lost>
(E) year, which thus cost the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and <missing lost>
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Re: Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perh  [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2011, 03:58
(B)

(A) year, and they cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
(B) year and thus cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
(C) year, so as to cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
(D) year that costs the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and <missing lost>
(E) year, which thus cost the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and <missing lost>
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Re: Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perh  [#permalink]

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06 May 2011, 04:58
HIMALAYA wrote:
automan wrote:
Can anyone explain why E is wrong?

the use of "which" is wrong in E. as used in the question, "which" refers to "year".

Quote:
Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perhaps 18 million Americans, who collectively lose 64 million workdays a year, and they cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost work time.
(B) year and thus cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
(E) year, which thus cost the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and

I think which can refer to migraine as well. "which" has another issue of not able to point living things i.e. Americans in this case.
This also means that "cost" is not possible because whether it is migrane or year as subject(if "which" is used), it will be a singular noun and cost is plural verb.

The primary reason why I kicked E out was "lost medical expenses and work time". "lost" is getting applicable on both of medical expenses and work time. It is fine in normal scenarios, but cost is already getting applied on medical expenses, which makes this lost redundant. It should not be "cost lost medical expenses", rather be "cost medical expenses" only.

So, there are multiple flaws for E to be kicked out.
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Re: Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perh  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2012, 13:53
E is not out because of a parallelism issue, rather a meaning issue. You can't "lose medical expenses" as a result of migraines. Migraines would increase medical expenses, which is relayed in the OA of B: cost the nation \$ and lost work time.
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04 Feb 2013, 07:01
(A) year, and they cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
", and they" makes the construction awkwrd. If they refers to the Americans then there is no need for the comma... Also, "they" should not be used... Look at the structure: "...afflicts blah blah Americans, who lose blah blah in a year and [they] cost.." NOT PARALLEL..

(B) year and thus cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
CORRECT. "who collectivelu lose blah blah and thus cost the nation blah blah" simply modifies Americans

(C) year, so as to cost the nation \$50 billion in medical expenses and lost
"Migraine afflicts a number of Americans, who are blah blah in a year, so as to cost the nation..." changes the meaning by making the cost look intentional...

(D) year that costs the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and
misplaced modifier by touch-rule

(E) year, which thus cost the nation \$50 billion in lost medical expenses and
"who collectively lose 64 million workdays a year, which costs..." is OUT because of misplaced modifier.

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Re: Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perh  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 06:20
The problem in D is one of diction. It says that it costs the nation 50bn in lost medical expenses and work time. This is not true. It should say something like in answer choice B. It costs the nation 50bn in medical expeneses and lost work time. See the difference?

Hope it helps
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Re: Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perh  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2018, 15:17
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Re: Migraine, the most debilitating common form of headache, afflicts perh &nbs [#permalink] 02 Jul 2018, 15:17

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