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# Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months,

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Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2009, 01:35
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Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, migrate from the midwestern United States to selected forests outside Mexico City. It takes at least three generations of monarchs to make the journey, so the great-great-grandchildren who finally arrive in the Mexican forests have never been there before. Yet they return to the same trees their forebears left. Scientists theorize that monarchs, like homing pigeons, map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As a first step in testing this theory, lepidopterists plan to install a low-voltage transmitter inside one grove of “butterfly trees” in the Mexican forests. If the butterflies are either especially attracted to the grove with the transmitter or especially repelled by it, lepidopterists will have evidence that______

(A) monarch butterflies have brains, however minuscule
(B) monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity
(C) low-voltage electricity can affect butterflies, whether positively or adversely
(D) monarchs map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields
(E) monarchs communicate in intergenerationally via electromagnetic fields
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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01 Mar 2009, 02:49
Among B, C, D, I went for C.
ritula wrote:
Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, migrate from the midwestern United States to selected forests outside Mexico City. It takes at least three generations of monarchs to make the journey, so the great-great-grandchildren who finally arrive in the Mexican forests have never been there before. Yet they return to the same trees their forebears left. Scientists theorize that monarchs, like homing pigeons, map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As a first step in testing this theory, lepidopterists plan to install a low-voltage transmitter inside one grove of “butterfly trees” in the Mexican forests. If the butterflies are either especially attracted to the grove with the transmitter or especially repelled by it, lepidopterists will have evidence that______
(A) monarch butterflies have brains, however minuscule
(B) monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity I think conclusion is about butterflies, in general
(C) low-voltage electricity can affect butterflies, whether positively or adversely CORRECT
(D) monarchs map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields The test was just a first step
(E) monarchs communicate in intergenerationally via electromagnetic fields
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01 Mar 2009, 12:05
ritula wrote:
Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, migrate from the midwestern United States to selected forests outside Mexico City. It takes at least three generations of monarchs to make the journey, so the great-great-grandchildren who finally arrive in the Mexican forests have never been there before. Yet they return to the same trees their forebears left. Scientists theorize that monarchs, like homing pigeons, map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As a first step in testing this theory, lepidopterists plan to install a low-voltage transmitter inside one grove of “butterfly trees” in the Mexican forests. If the butterflies are either especially attracted to the grove with the transmitter or especially repelled by it, lepidopterists will have evidence that______
(A) monarch butterflies have brains, however minuscule
(B) monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity
(C) low-voltage electricity can affect butterflies, whether positively or adversely
(D) monarchs map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields
(E) monarchs communicate in intergenerationally via electromagnetic fields

Well, to be able to map, these flies need to have a brain. So, A is the logical choice.

Low voltage transmitter is not equivalent to low voltage electricity.
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01 Mar 2009, 13:31
sanjay_gmat wrote:
Well, to be able to map, these flies need to have a brain. So, A is the logical choice.
There is nothing is the stem to suggest it, even if it sounds logical

Low voltage transmitter is not equivalent to low voltage electricity.
Agreed with this
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01 Mar 2009, 13:46
botirvoy wrote:
sanjay_gmat wrote:
Well, to be able to map, these flies need to have a brain. So, A is the logical choice.
There is nothing is the stem to suggest it, even if it sounds logical

Low voltage transmitter is not equivalent to low voltage electricity.
Agreed with this

forgot to also include that if the flies either get attracted or repelled by the transmitter, the flies must be able to make a preference. This proves that they need to have brains.
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01 Mar 2009, 16:00
What do you think about D??
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01 Mar 2009, 21:21
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I think C is a generalization - It talks about 'butterflies' but the issue at hand is 'monarch butterflies'. Between B and D, I'll go with D

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02 Mar 2009, 01:17
Between B and C, C is More Correct
btw,
This passage is amazingly Correct.I read it on Outlook GEO last month

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02 Mar 2009, 04:31
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Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, migrate from the midwestern United States to selected forests outside Mexico City. It takes at least three generations of monarchs to make the journey, so the great-great-grandchildren who finally arrive in the Mexican forests have never been there before. Yet they return to the same trees their forebears left. Scientists theorize that monarchs, like homing pigeons, map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As a first step in testing this theory, lepidopterists plan to install a low-voltage transmitter inside one grove of “butterfly trees” in the Mexican forests. If the butterflies are either especially attracted to the grove with the transmitter or especially repelled by it, lepidopterists will have evidence that______

Explanation:
-----------------------
(A) monarch butterflies have brains, however minuscule ---> The theory revolves around route mapping according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields and not about butterflies’ brains.

(B) monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity ---> This sounds right. As the passage discusses about lepidopterists taking their first step in an attempt to test the theory, this option stands as a strong contender for that first step. Once they conclude that monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity, they might go further to test whether it’s earth’s electromagnetic fields or something else that helps monarch butterflies in tracing their route.

(C) low-voltage electricity can affect butterflies, whether positively or adversely ---> This option discusses butterflies and not monarch butterflies. Moreover, the theory focuses on the role of electromagnetic fields and not about how (positively or adversely) the butterflies get affected due to low-voltage electricity. So, option C is clearly out.

(D) monarchs map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields ---> This option goes beyond the first step of testing the theory. Moreover, it’s not monarch; it’s monarch butterflies. We cannot assume that it’s referring to monarch butterflies.

(E) monarchs communicate in intergenerationally via electromagnetic fields ---> This option too goes beyond the first step of testing the theory. Moreover, it’s not monarch; it’s monarch butterflies. We cannot assume that it’s referring to monarch butterflies.
-----------------------

I go for B.

Hope that helps.

Regards,
Technext
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02 Mar 2009, 05:26
Even i think its B.....since monarch butterflies are able to map the route using electromagnetic fields...that means they have sensitivity towars some force...... which is stated in B
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02 Mar 2009, 06:39
"This option discusses butterflies and not monarch butterflies"

thanks for highlighting
is it B then?
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02 Mar 2009, 07:03
OA is B. amazing Technext........How cld u think it dat way? I had chosen D though thinking it was the most obvious choice. Hats off to u .needless 2 say +1 frm me
Technext wrote:
Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, migrate from the midwestern United States to selected forests outside Mexico City. It takes at least three generations of monarchs to make the journey, so the great-great-grandchildren who finally arrive in the Mexican forests have never been there before. Yet they return to the same trees their forebears left. Scientists theorize that monarchs, like homing pigeons, map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As a first step in testing this theory, lepidopterists plan to install a low-voltage transmitter inside one grove of “butterfly trees” in the Mexican forests. If the butterflies are either especially attracted to the grove with the transmitter or especially repelled by it, lepidopterists will have evidence that______

Explanation:
-----------------------
(A) monarch butterflies have brains, however minuscule ---> The theory revolves around route mapping according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields and not about butterflies’ brains.

(B) monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity ---> This sounds right. As the passage discusses about lepidopterists taking their first step in an attempt to test the theory, this option stands as a strong contender for that first step. Once they conclude that monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity, they might go further to test whether it’s earth’s electromagnetic fields or something else that helps monarch butterflies in tracing their route.

(C) low-voltage electricity can affect butterflies, whether positively or adversely ---> This option discusses butterflies and not monarch butterflies. Moreover, the theory focuses on the role of electromagnetic fields and not about how (positively or adversely) the butterflies get affected due to low-voltage electricity. So, option C is clearly out.

(D) monarchs map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields ---> This option goes beyond the first step of testing the theory. Moreover, it’s not monarch; it’s monarch butterflies. We cannot assume that it’s referring to monarch butterflies.

(E) monarchs communicate in intergenerationally via electromagnetic fields ---> This option too goes beyond the first step of testing the theory. Moreover, it’s not monarch; it’s monarch butterflies. We cannot assume that it’s referring to monarch butterflies.
-----------------------

I go for B.

Hope that helps.

Regards,
Technext
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02 Mar 2009, 18:40
I picked B as well, and I'll add a few points to Technext's explanation:

Technext wrote:
Monarch butterflies, whose average life span is nine months, migrate from the midwestern United States to selected forests outside Mexico City. It takes at least three generations of monarchs to make the journey, so the great-great-grandchildren who finally arrive in the Mexican forests have never been there before. Yet they return to the same trees their forebears left. Scientists theorize that monarchs, like homing pigeons, map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields. As a first step in testing this theory, lepidopterists plan to install a low-voltage transmitter inside one grove of “butterfly trees” in the Mexican forests. If the butterflies are either especially attracted to the grove with the transmitter or especially repelled by it, lepidopterists will have evidence that______

Explanation:
-----------------------
(A) monarch butterflies have brains, however minuscule ---> The theory revolves around route mapping according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields and not about butterflies’ brains.

(B) monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity ---> This sounds right. As the passage discusses about lepidopterists taking their first step in an attempt to test the theory, this option stands as a strong contender for that first step. Once they conclude that monarch butterflies are sensitive to electricity, they might go further to test whether it’s earth’s electromagnetic fields or something else that helps monarch butterflies in tracing their route.

(C) low-voltage electricity can affect butterflies, whether positively or adversely ---> This option discusses butterflies and not monarch butterflies. Moreover, the theory focuses on the role of electromagnetic fields and not about how (positively or adversely) the butterflies get affected due to low-voltage electricity. So, option C is clearly out.

(D) monarchs map their routes according to the earth’s electromagnetic fields ---> This option goes beyond the first step of testing the theory. Moreover, it’s not monarch; it’s monarch butterflies. We cannot assume that it’s referring to monarch butterflies.

(E) monarchs communicate in intergenerationally via electromagnetic fields ---> This option too goes beyond the first step of testing the theory. Moreover, it’s not monarch; it’s monarch butterflies. We cannot assume that it’s referring to monarch butterflies.
-----------------------

I go for B.

Hope that helps.

Regards,
Technext

This is really an Inference question, which means we have to think about what MUST be true if the monarch butterflies react differently to the grove with the transmitter. The larger theory is really beside the point.

(A) We have no reason to think that reacting to electricity proves the presence of a brain. Pieces of quartz react to electricity. This does not follow.

(B) This logically follows. The only thing different about the grove with the transmitter is the electromagnetic field created by the transmitter, and the monarchs react to it. They could not do that if they were not sensitive to electricity in some way or another. (Note: GMAT questions are supposed to NOT depend on outside knowledge, but this one does depend on you knowing that voltage measures ELECTRICITY, period. It doesn't measure anything else. So a "low voltage transmitter" does have to be transmitting an electromagnetic field.

(C) If the monarch butterflies respond to low voltage electricity, this DOES in fact prove that "butterflies" can respond to low voltage electricity. Monarch butterflies are butterflies, and if even one butterfly does something, then (logically) butterflies as a group "can" do that thing. But choice (C) says the electricity AFFECTS butterflies, and the facts do not show that it AFFECTS monarchs; only that they can sense it.

(D) (E) Obviously, finding out that they react to electrical fields in this limited experiment is not enough to show that they find their way all the way back using the earth's field, nor to show that they communicate intergenerationally that way. Personally, I think we can assume that "monarchs" are monarch butterflies, but it doesn't matter -- these choices are out anyway.

This has nothing to do with the GMAT, but -- how in the world do we know that the great-great-grandchildren return to the same trees? That sounds like someone had to put a lot of very tiny tags on a lot of butterflies, AND had to watch where they laid their eggs, AND tag the caterpillars, AND watch them hatch and tag them again before they flew away...
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02 Mar 2009, 21:33
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grumpyoldman wrote:
I picked B as well, and I'll add a few points to Technext's explanation:

This is really an Inference question, which means we have to think about what MUST be true if the monarch butterflies react differently to the grove with the transmitter. The larger theory is really beside the point.

(A) We have no reason to think that reacting to electricity proves the presence of a brain. Pieces of quartz react to electricity. This does not follow.

(B) This logically follows. The only thing different about the grove with the transmitter is the electromagnetic field created by the transmitter, and the monarchs react to it. They could not do that if they were not sensitive to electricity in some way or another. (Note: GMAT questions are supposed to NOT depend on outside knowledge, but this one does depend on you knowing that voltage measures ELECTRICITY, period. It doesn't measure anything else. So a "low voltage transmitter" does have to be transmitting an electromagnetic field.

(C) If the monarch butterflies respond to low voltage electricity, this DOES in fact prove that "butterflies" can respond to low voltage electricity. Monarch butterflies are butterflies, and if even one butterfly does something, then (logically) butterflies as a group "can" do that thing. But choice (C) says the electricity AFFECTS butterflies, and the facts do not show that it AFFECTS monarchs; only that they can sense it.

(D) (E) Obviously, finding out that they react to electrical fields in this limited experiment is not enough to show that they find their way all the way back using the earth's field, nor to show that they communicate intergenerationally that way. Personally, I think we can assume that "monarchs" are monarch butterflies, but it doesn't matter -- these choices are out anyway.

This has nothing to do with the GMAT, but -- how in the world do we know that the great-great-grandchildren return to the same trees? That sounds like someone had to put a lot of very tiny tags on a lot of butterflies, AND had to watch where they laid their eggs, AND tag the caterpillars, AND watch them hatch and tag them again before they flew away...

Thanks a lot for your explanation sir!

(C) If the monarch butterflies respond to low voltage electricity, this DOES in fact prove that "butterflies" can respond to low voltage electricity. Monarch butterflies are butterflies, and if even one butterfly does something, then (logically) butterflies as a group "can" do that thing. ---> Can we really assume this sir?

(D) (E) ".....Personally, I think we can assume that "monarchs" are monarch butterflies, but it doesn't matter....." ---> Though I have read the word Personally, can we really assume this sir? For ex., if the passage discusses about some entity (having some compound name as in this passage) and the option just states part of the compound name. Do you advise us to ignore such things?

This has nothing to do with the GMAT, but -- how in the world do we know that the great-great-grandchildren return to the same trees? That sounds like someone had to put a lot of very tiny tags on a lot of butterflies, AND had to watch where they laid their eggs, AND tag the caterpillars, AND watch them hatch and tag them again before they flew away... ---> Totally agree.

Regards,
Technext
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04 Mar 2009, 09:22
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About (C): I'm not assuming anything; just following the logical meaning of the words. "Can" just means "is possible". If peanuts cause allergic reactions in some people, then it is correct to say that peanuts "can" cause allergic reactions in "people", even though for most people they do not. Similarly, if electric fields did "affect" at least some monarch butterflies, then it is correct to say that electric fields "can" affect butterflies -- because monarch butterflies ARE butterflies. This remains true even if the fields do not affect all monarchs, and even if they do not affect any other species of butterflies.

About "monarchs": This is English grammar, not logic. We are able to refer back to a subclass of a noun by using the modifier only, once we have identified the subclass with both the modifier and the noun. For instance, I could start writing about "heavyweight boxers", and then refer to them as "heavyweights" for the rest of the passage. I suspect, however, that real GMAT questions might NOT use this particular grammatical structure (as this question did).
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05 Mar 2009, 02:40
grumpyoldman wrote:
About (C): I'm not assuming anything; just following the logical meaning of the words. "Can" just means "is possible". If peanuts cause allergic reactions in some people, then it is correct to say that peanuts "can" cause allergic reactions in "people", even though for most people they do not. Similarly, if electric fields did "affect" at least some monarch butterflies, then it is correct to say that electric fields "can" affect butterflies -- because monarch butterflies ARE butterflies. This remains true even if the fields do not affect all monarchs, and even if they do not affect any other species of butterflies.

I was really not aware that we can frame sentences this way. It's really good information. Thanks a lot sir!

grumpyoldman wrote:
About "monarchs": This is English grammar, not logic. We are able to refer back to a subclass of a noun by using the modifier only, once we have identified the subclass with both the modifier and the noun. For instance, I could start writing about "heavyweight boxers", and then refer to them as "heavyweights" for the rest of the passage. I suspect, however, that real GMAT questions might NOT use this particular grammatical structure (as this question did).

By the way, I shouldn’t have asked this question in the first place. Though, I read the options carefully, I somehow missed that the subclass was already identified by the modifier in the passage.

Sorry for bothering you.

Regards,
Technext
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14 Jan 2010, 07:48
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I went for D thinking that is the plausible choice among all,but after reading the other posts I realized that I missed the obvious errors

choice C talks about butterflies but not about monarch butterfilies, so it is irrelevant
choice D and E says nothing about butterfiles it specifes only about monarchs so it is irrelevant ( I fell for this trap)
though choice A talks about monarch butterfliers it is neither talks about electormagnetic field nor electricity so it is out of context

so only choice B is relevant ( how easy it is to expalin after seeing the answer choice )
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14 Jan 2010, 08:57
Uh this is a good one! The answer has to be B.... seems one could come up with a nice inference question for this little paragraph as well

On a different note, I thought the monarch was a moth and not a butterfly...
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14 Jan 2010, 09:34
Powerscore CR bible says, there is a specific standard of attempting these fill-the-blank type questions. Go with the general flow of the argument, make sure the elements are duly noted and associated with each other properly, the required statement will either end up as a premise or a will be a conclusion statement.

My answer was indeed B. Btw, Low Voltage is associated with electricity only, voltage term itself should suggest that it is electricity.
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14 Jan 2010, 10:50
monarch is head of a state, king or queen

so I believe then monarch butterfly refers to head of that butterfly group or something similar to that

but either monarchs and monarch butterflies aren't the same
Re: CR: monarch butterflies   [#permalink] 14 Jan 2010, 10:50

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