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# More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner

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More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2009, 07:01
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More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can "jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.

(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(E) as do pearls that move mystreiously from one necklace to some other

https://www.nytimes.com/1983/10/16/weekinreview/the-science-corps-wants-a-few-more-good-heretics.html

Dr. McClintock, a gentle heretic for most of her 81 years, reported some 30 years ago that genes, the tiny beads of genetic information in each cell, can ''jump,'' like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another. At the time, her peers greeted that revolutionary idea with stony silence. Last week, however, the Nobel committee hailed it as the product of ''great ingenuity and intellectual stringency,'' a discovery that has aided biomedical research and helped explain the great genetic variability found in nature.
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2012, 22:19
35
26
rohansherry wrote:
126. More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can
"jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.
(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(E) as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one

I am responding to a p.m. from venmic, vvho vvrote: "The correct ansvver to this one is C not B." I am sorry to differ, but the correct ansvver is B

Idea #1
"like" is used for nouns only, to compare a noun to a noun
"as" introduces a full clause, that must have a full noun + verb structure
See these blog post:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-sente ... ike-vs-as/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-sente ... omparison/

Idea #2
DO NOT confuse a [noun + participle] structure for a full [noun + verb] structure. This is a very common mistake, the GMAT loves to catch folks in it.
A participle is a verb form, but it's not acting as a verb in the sentence --- rather, it's acting as a noun modifier.
See this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/participle ... -the-gmat/

The phrase "pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another" is not a full [noun + verb] clause --- it would not stand on it's own as a sentence. Rather, it's simply a noun plus a long noun modifier. All we have is the noun and stuff decorating the noun, so "as" is incorrect, and "like" is correct. That's why (A) is wrong and (B) is right.

Once we have the words "pearls do", that's a noun + verb, a clause all on its own --- then "like" is wrong: this is why (D) is wrong. Choices (C) & (E) have the correct word "as" followed by a full clause --- they avoid the "as"/"like" mistake. BUT, (C) & (E) are wordier, less polished, less elegant, more awkward. (B) is much more sleek and efficient, which makes (B) the correct answer.

Does all that make sense?

Mike
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2009, 09:05
12
6
(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
AS PEARLS MOVE would have been a correct usage of AS
but here a noun PEARLS is being compared to GENES and hence LIKE is correct
MOVING MYSTERIOUSLY FROM .... participle phrase for an analogy of the way the genes move around
(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
CORRECT
(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
AS PEARLS DO is correct but THAT is incorrect because THAT cannot restrict
the action DO of pearls
(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
LIKE PEARLS DO is incorrect since LIKE cannot modify a clause "pearls do"
(E) as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one

AS has to be followed by the noun/pronoun performing the clause
##### General Discussion
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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04 May 2012, 12:00
15
11
Hi All,

More than 30 years ago Dr, Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can “jump”, as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.

“Like” and “As”, both are used to convey comparison is a sentence. However, there is a difference between their usages. “Like” is always followed only by a “noun” or a “pronoun” whereas “As” is always followed by a “clause”.

Going by this rule, the original sentence is incorrect because here “as” is not followed by a clause. This error can be rectified either by placing a clause after “as” or by replacing “as” with “like”.

POE:

Choice A: as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another. Incorrect for the reason stated above.

Choice B: like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another. Correct.

Choice C: as pearls do that move from one necklace to others. Incorrect. Firstly, “that” is relative pronoun that modifies a noun. So “that” should touch the noun it modifies. But in this choice, “that” is away. Also, the use of “others” is not correct here. The intended meaning is that pearls move from necklace to another necklace. Using “others” make it ambiguous as to where the pearls move to.

Choice D: like pearls do that move from one necklace to others. Incorrect. Apart from repeating the “that” and “others” errors of choice C, this choice has another error. “like” has been followed by a clause here.

Choice E: as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one. Incorrect. This sentence distorts the meaning of the sentence. By using the modifier "that move" and verb "do" for pearls, it appears that pearls to two actions - pearls jump and by the way these pearls also move mysteriously...This is not the intended meaning. The author actually wants to say that genes jump like the pearls. And then he describes the manner in which these pearls jump - by moving mysteriously.

1. “Like” is followed by a noun and “as” is followed by a clause.
2. Be careful of any change in words that appear in the original sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2012, 09:43
6
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sujit2k7 wrote:
I do have a question whether we are comparing genes with pearls or we are comparing the action of jumping
of genes with action of pearls movement.

It's funny --- that question doesn't have a clear precise mathematical answer. In the big picture, in the overall logic of the sentence and of the larger argument, we are drawing an analogy between genes jumping and pearls moving, between the two actions, but when we use the construction "...like pearls ...", as in the correct answer (B), then the literal grammatical comparison is between genes and pearls, the two nouns.

Does that make sense?

Mike
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2012, 05:34
5
I do have a question whether we are comparing genes with pearls or we are comparing the action of jumping
of genes with action of pearls movement.
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2018, 05:45
4
tamal99 wrote:

Hey GMATNinja

If the intended meaning was to compare jump of genes with movement of Pearl, then E would be correct option?

Here's the sentence again, with (E) plugged in:

Quote:
More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can "jump," as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other.

There are still a few problems with (E). First, it doesn't make sense to say that the pearls "move mysteriously from one necklace to some other." To "another" necklace would be fine, but "some other" is an odd construction in this case. (And for whatever it's worth, I very strongly doubt that you'll ever see this particular issue again on an official question.)

The other problem is that the phrase "as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to another" seems to imply that pearls actually move from one necklace to another. And unless you're living someplace with very interesting laws of physics, that simply can't be the case. In (B), "genes" are compared to to "pearls moving mysteriously...", and that phrase does not imply that pearls actually move from one necklace to another.

Finally, you could also argue that (B) does a better job of cutting to the heart of the comparison. We're trying to compare two nouns ("genes" and "pearls moving mysteriously..."), and there's no need to reconstruct the sentence so that we're comparing two verb phrases ("genes jump..." and "as do pearls that move...").

I hope this helps!
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2020, 19:29
3
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bmvs wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry ,

I am curious to know on whether is it not mandatory to apply parallelism as the first part of the sentence conveys an action with a clause and the second part just mentions a noun

"Genes can jump" - Is a clause, so isn't it important to maintain parallelism?

In that case, how about the following simplified sentence from OG

Owning a house is still a major goal of younger generations, like the goal of earlier generations?

This sentence was marked wrong Quoting parallelism as a reason! Link for question https://gmatclub.com/forum/according-to-a-recent-poll-owning-and-living-in-a-freestanding-house-107775.html

OG mentions that the portion before Like is a full clause, and the portion following like should be a full clause too

GMATNinja, @e-GMAT, please kindly help on this clarification, whether is it important to maintain the parallelism or not?

In case if I miss understood, please correct me

Thank You,
MB

Let's look at a couple examples to illustrate the difference between the sentences in question:

1) "Genes, like pearls, can jump."

• Here we are comparing "genes" and "pearls" -- two things that can apparently "jump".
• We use "like" to compare two nouns, and that's exactly what we want here.

2) "Owning a house, like the goal of earlier generations, is still a goal of a majority of young adults."

• Now we are comparing "owning a house" to "the goal of earlier generations" -- two things that, apparently, are still goals of a majority of young adults.
• But what WAS the goal of earlier generations? Owning a house? Owning a Ferrari? Breaking 700 on the GMAT?? With this structure, the goal of earlier generations can really be anything, as long as it's a goal shared by a majority of young adults today.
• In other words, this sentence does NOT make it entirely clear that both groups -- earlier generations and the majority of young adults today -- share the same goal (owning a house).

3) "Owning a house is still a major goal of younger generations, like the goal of earlier generations."

• This is basically the same as the previous example. The "like" clause has been moved, but the sentence still has the same weakness.
• We are really trying to say that "Owning a house IS still a major goal, JUST AS owning a house WAS a goal of earlier generations." That makes it perfectly clear that both groups shared the same goal. But we can't use "like" to compare two clauses.

So even though this question looks a bit like the "earlier generations" question, it's an entirely different animal!
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2013, 02:39
2
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as-vs-like-correct-and-incorrect-usages-133950.html

To state comparisons:
LIKE + NOUN
AS + CLAUSE

More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can “jump,” as
pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.

A. as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
B. like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
C. as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
D. like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
E. as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one

Than you can eliminate C and E because they are unidiomatic.
one necklace to another
one necklace to others
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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21 May 2014, 08:45
2
2
(A) "as" requires a clause after it. A clause requires a verb, but we don't have one here. "moving" is a participle (i.e. a type of adjective).
(B) CORRECT!
(C) This answer choice does use "as" correctly. Unfortunately, the word "that" is a relative pronoun, and it modifies whatever it touches. In this case, it's touching a verb ("do"), which it cannot modify. "One necklace to others" is slightly weird; a single pearl can't move to multiple necklaces at once.
(D) "like" cannot have a clause after it. The word "do" signals this as a clause, so the "like" is wrong.
(E) This answer choice does use "as" correctly. However, it makes a meaning error. This implies that pearls actually move from one necklace to another, which they don't. Also, "one necklace to some other one" is awkward
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More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 12 May 2019, 21:13
1
perfectstranger wrote:
More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can "jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.

A. "As" must be followed by a clause. Means "As + verb" is the correct structure. For this reason A is out.

B. "Like" is correctly used to compare nouns.

C. We need "to another" and not "to others". Also "that" is wrong. Here "That" refers to "jump", creating a nonsensical meaning.

D. "Like" must be followed by a noun only and not by a clause. Therefore, the use of "do that" is wrong.

E. Incorrect structure " as do pearls that"

(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another

(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another

(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others

(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others

(E) as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other

It's B. Like used for comparing nouns.
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More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2019, 07:16
1
mikemcgarry wrote:
rohansherry wrote:
126. More than thirty years ago Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can
"jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.
(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(E) as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one

I am responding to a p.m. from venmic, vvho vvrote: "The correct ansvver to this one is C not B." I am sorry to differ, but the correct ansvver is B

Idea #1
"like" is used for nouns only, to compare a noun to a noun
"as" introduces a full clause, that must have a full noun + verb structure
See these blog post:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-sente ... ike-vs-as/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-sente ... omparison/

Idea #2
DO NOT confuse a [noun + participle] structure for a full [noun + verb] structure. This is a very common mistake, the GMAT loves to catch folks in it.
A participle is a verb form, but it's not acting as a verb in the sentence --- rather, it's acting as a noun modifier.
See this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/participle ... -the-gmat/

The phrase "pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another" is not a full [noun + verb] clause --- it would not stand on it's own as a sentence. Rather, it's simply a noun plus a long noun modifier. All we have is the noun and stuff decorating the noun, so "as" is incorrect, and "like" is correct. That's why (A) is wrong and (B) is right.

Once we have the words "pearls do", that's a noun + verb, a clause all on its own --- then "like" is wrong: this is why (D) is wrong. Choices (C) & (E) have the correct word "as" followed by a full clause --- they avoid the "as"/"like" mistake. BUT, (C) & (E) are wordier, less polished, less elegant, more awkward. (B) is much more sleek and efficient, which makes (B) the correct answer.

Does all that make sense?

Mike

So the song "Love me like you do, love love love me like you do" is grammatically wrong?? I used to use English songs to learn English back in the day
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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15 May 2018, 23:47
GMATNinja Hey! Can you please explain why each of the four options is incorrect?
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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16 May 2018, 07:20
Here two nouns are not actually compared but correlated. As per my knowledge correlation is depicted by "like" to bring out a relation or similarity between two nouns. Genes like pearls...

B is the correct choice.

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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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20 May 2018, 02:42
1
perfectstranger wrote:
More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can "jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.

(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one [color=#ed1c24][color=#9e0039]necklace to others[/color][/color]
(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(E) as do pearls that move mystreiously from one necklace to some other

A : Do is missing
B: Another is correct: From one (Singular) to Another (for singular )...to maintain From..To idiom
C,D,& E : Idiom error.
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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20 May 2018, 18:59
SugandhaM wrote:
GMATNinja Hey! Can you please explain why each of the four options is incorrect?

There's a great explanation here from GMAT Club legend mikemcgarry. Let me know if that doesn't clear up your doubts?
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2018, 22:06
GMATNinja wrote:
SugandhaM wrote:
GMATNinja Hey! Can you please explain why each of the four options is incorrect?

There's a great explanation here from GMAT Club legend mikemcgarry. Let me know if that doesn't clear up your doubts?

Hey GMATNinja

If the intended meaning was to compare jump of genes with movement of Pearl, then E would be correct option?
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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2018, 22:19
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

More than 30 years ago Dr, Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can “jump”, as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.

“Like” and “As”, both are used to convey comparison is a sentence. However, there is a difference between their usages. “Like” is always followed only by a “noun” or a “pronoun” whereas “As” is always followed by a “clause”.

Going by this rule, the original sentence is incorrect because here “as” is not followed by a clause. This error can be rectified either by placing a clause after “as” or by replacing “as” with “like”.

POE:

Choice A: as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another. Incorrect for the reason stated above.

Choice B: like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another. Correct.

Choice C: as pearls do that move from one necklace to others. Incorrect. Firstly, “that” is relative pronoun that modifies a noun. So “that” should touch the noun it modifies. But in this choice, “that” is away. Also, the use of “others” is not correct here. The intended meaning is that pearls move from necklace to another necklace. Using “others” make it ambiguous as to where the pearls move to.

Choice D: like pearls do that move from one necklace to others. Incorrect. Apart from repeating the “that” and “others” errors of choice C, this choice has another error. “like” has been followed by a clause here.

Choice E: as do pearls that move mysteriously from one necklace to some other one. Incorrect. This sentence distorts the meaning of the sentence. By using the modifier "that move" and verb "do" for pearls, it appears that pearls to two actions - pearls jump and by the way these pearls also move mysteriously...This is not the intended meaning. The author actually wants to say that genes jump like the pearls. And then he describes the manner in which these pearls jump - by moving mysteriously.

1. “Like” is followed by a noun and “as” is followed by a clause.
2. Be careful of any change in words that appear in the original sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Genes can jump is not noun so how can we use like that is used to compare noun

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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2019, 10:19
perfectstranger wrote:
More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner, reported that genes can "jump," as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another.

(A) as pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(B) like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another
(C) as pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(D) like pearls do that move mysteriously from one necklace to others
(E) as do pearls that move mystreiously from one necklace to some other

https://www.nytimes.com/1983/10/16/weekinreview/the-science-corps-wants-a-few-more-good-heretics.html

Dr. McClintock, a gentle heretic for most of her 81 years, reported some 30 years ago that genes, the tiny beads of genetic information in each cell, can ''jump,'' like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another. At the time, her peers greeted that revolutionary idea with stony silence. Last week, however, the Nobel committee hailed it as the product of ''great ingenuity and intellectual stringency,'' a discovery that has aided biomedical research and helped explain the great genetic variability found in nature.

"To another" and "to some others" are awkward in construction, so C,D and E are out

Between A and B "Pearls moving" is a noun, so using "as" to compare is wrong, A is out

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Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner  [#permalink]

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11 May 2019, 08:44
"Jump" is enclosed in quotes means it is hypothetical

hence use of "Like" is justifies here.

Like cannot be followed by a verb, hence (D) is wrong

in option (B) ---> like pearls moving mysteriously from one necklace to another

We should not miss that "moving" here is working as a modifier not verb
Re: More than 30 years ago, Dr. Barbara McClintock, the Nobel Prize winner   [#permalink] 11 May 2019, 08:44

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