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# Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted

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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2016, 05:31
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:

but isn't the red car a complex noun? formed by an adjective + noun?
so is in this question - 7 is adjective, dollars is noun, previously 7 - makes sense, no?

mvictor wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
mvictor wrote:
I could easily eliminate A, B, and E..and between C and D, I picked C.
7\$ -> seven is an adjective - previously modifies the adjective, no? i understand that it is not explicitly written in this form..but in D "instead of" made me think twice whether it is correct...

\$7 is a thing and hence is a noun. Just like 'red car' is a thing.
So the use of previously (an adverb) is wrong here.

Will you say "The beautiful red car is ... " or "The beautifully red car is ..."

The point is that the entire "\$7" acts as a noun and you need an adjective to modify it, not an adverb.

VeritasPrepKarishma... if we mean that the red colour is beautiful, we must use the adverb "beautifully", since it modifies the adjective "red". However if we mean that the car is beautiful, we must use adjective "beautiful" since it modifies the noun "car".

Consider a situation: The colour of the car in my opinion is not red, but someone else says that it is red. Hence I make the following statement:

I purchased the supposedly red car.

The statement would be grammatically correct. Isn't it?

Similarly, if the intent above is to modify the adjective "7", not the noun "dollar", I tend to agree with the logic of mvictor. Nonetheless, as you said, I do agree that \$7 can be considered as one object here and hence the adjective "previous" would be appropriate. Yet one could also say "previously 7 dollar," isn't it?

The price rose from previously 7 dollar to 10 dollar........... Is this sentence wrong?
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Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2016, 18:42
This is an official question, it appeared in GMAT-Prep exam pack-1 for me. And it needs more discussion. Request experts to talk about this in a bit more detail. Mostly D vs E.

Thanks!
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Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 00:37
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arhumsid wrote:
This is an official question, it appeared in GMAT-Prep exam pack-1 for me. And it needs more discussion. Request experts to talk about this in a bit more detail. Mostly D vs E.

Thanks!

In option E, it is not clear for what \$330 a year is contributed. It is alright to omit the repeated part from the second element of comparison, not from the first. Here "for the cost of higher education" appears in the second element ("the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education"), but not in the first ("\$330 a year").

In option D, the part "toward the cost of higher education" can be eliminated from the second element (the \$7 per year required previously toward the cost of higher education ) since the meaning is not obscured because of this omission.

[Brief explanation of other options:

Option A and B does not highlight the comparison between the previous value and the current value.

In option C, the adverb "previously" wrongly refers to the noun phrase "\$7 per year". An adjective may refer to a noun phrase, but an adverb cannot.]
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 00:40
Hi Expert,

X instead of Y-- X and Y both should be structurally parallel.

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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 00:56
AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,

X instead of Y-- X and Y both should be structurally parallel.

I think it is this -

Contribute \$330 a year(X) toward the cost of higher education, instead of the #7 per year(Y) [toward the cost of higher education] required previously.
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Re: Most of Portugal's 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 04:09
AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,

X instead of Y-- X and Y both should be structurally parallel.

X = \$300 a year
Y = the \$7 per year

Two yearly values are compared. X is modified by "toward the cost of higher education" (prepositional phrase), and Y is modified by "required previously" (past participle), but this is not a problem - the modifiers are not compared.

However the comma before "instead" should not have been there.
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Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2017, 00:47
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying \$7 per year.

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying \$7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid \$7 per year
C. year, compared to the previously \$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required previously
E. year as opposed to the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education

My SC accuracy is around 95 %. Ive never learned any grammar (When I have a good day, I can tell you the noun and verb of the sentence). I just don't care about terminology

IMO you just have to read a lot and do a lot of practice questions. It follows always the same pattern. Im non-native and sometimes I don't understand a single word but still can pick the correct answer... you just have to keep an eye on particular words or constructions.

Don't want to boast with this post but rather encourage other non-natives
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2017, 02:45
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to protest a law that requires them to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying \$7 per year.

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying \$7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid \$7 per year
C. year, compared to the previously \$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required previously
E. year as opposed to the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2017, 15:25
I want to know what is wrong with choice C?
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2017, 18:52
Hello Experts,

Could you please further explain the Option C
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Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 07:15
Bharath99 wrote:
Hello Experts,

Could you please further explain the Option C

The adverb "previously" is wrong. An adverb must refer to a verb or an adjective. However, "\$7 per year" is a noun phrase requiring an adjective. Thus "previous" instead of "previously" should have been used. Hence option C is wrong.
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 10:23
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 10:23
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2017, 09:10
ashkrs wrote:
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to
protest a law that requires them to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher
education, previously paying \$7 per year.

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying \$7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid \$7 per
year
C. year, compared to the previously \$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required
previously
E. year as opposed to the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher
education

shouldn't it be "towards" in all the options?
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2017, 09:40
rekhabishop wrote:
ashkrs wrote:
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to
protest a law that requires them to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher
education, previously paying \$7 per year.

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying \$7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid \$7 per
year
C. year, compared to the previously \$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required
previously
E. year as opposed to the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher
education

shouldn't it be "towards" in all the options?

Hello rekhabishop,

There is no difference in the usage of toward and towards. Both the words are used in the same context.

It is just that in American English, the word toward is used while in British English, the word towards is used.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 10:24
daagh wrote:
A says that the higher education was previously paying \$7

B The phrase - for which was previously paid \$7 per year - is too awkward to consider
In C - previously \$7 per year - is grammatically wrong. Previously is an adverb and can not modify the noun of \$7

D has no flaws as such and is the best answer.

E -as opposed to -is not the right idiom to describe comparison, unless the arms of the comparison are positioned opposite to the others physically? In a weird way, E may also give the feeling that the students were in fact opposed to the \$7 per year.

Hi daagh,
Pls pardon my ignorance & since nobody has raised this point it feels awkward to be the only one. I eliminated D & E because both use "the"7\$. Is it ok to use the before a particular noun?
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 14:29
ManishKM1 wrote:
Hi daagh,
Pls pardon my ignorance & since nobody has raised this point it feels awkward to be the only one. I eliminated D & E because both use "the"7\$. Is it ok to use the before a particular noun?

Hello ManishKM1,

Any article - a, an, or the - is used before a noun entity. In Choice D and E, \$7 (7 dollar) per year is a noun entity. Hence, usage of article the before this noun entity is correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 20:36
ashkrs wrote:
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to
protest a law that requires them to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher
education, previously paying \$7 per year.

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying \$7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid \$7 per
year
C. year, compared to the previously \$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required
previously
E. year as opposed to the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher
education

A is wrong because it suggests higher education previously paid .
B is in active voice and who paid the money and for which does not make sense .
C previously is incorrectly modifying a noun 7 dollars
D is correct as idiom instead of correctly takes a noun
E is wrong as there is a contrast not comparison and modifiers are not in correct place .
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Re: Most of Portugal s 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2017, 07:59
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A COMMA + VERBing modifier serves to express CONTEMPORANEOUS action: an action attributed to the preceding subject and happening AT THE SAME TIME as -- and often as a result of -- the preceding action.
Thus, A implies the following:
When the students contribute \$330 a year, they are AT THE SAME TIME previously paying \$7 per year.
Not the intended meaning.

B states that students must contribute \$330 a year toward their education, for which was previously paid \$7 per year.
Here, it's unclear WHO previously paid \$7 per year.
Also, a reader might construe that BOTH amounts are being applied to a student's education (the \$330 a year AND the \$7 previously paid).
To make it clear that one amount (\$330 a year) is serving to REPLACE the previous amount (\$7 per year), a word of contrast is needed (such as instead or whereas).
Eliminate B.

In C, previously (adverb) cannot serve to modify the \$7 per year (noun phrase).
Eliminate C.

In E, the reason that students must contribute \$330 a year seems to be conveyed by the modifier required previously for the cost of higher education.
The result is a nonsensical meaning:
A law that REQUIRES them to contribute \$330 a year REQUIRED PREVIOUSLY.
Eliminate E.

Instead of is a preposition that means IN PLACE OF.
Generally, instead of + noun serves as an adverb, indicating that an action is performed upon one thing INSTEAD OF another.

In the SCs below, all of the modifiers within quotes serve the same basic function:
Each serves to FURTHER DEFINE A VALUE IN THE PRECEDING CLAUSE (shown below in upper case letters).

The law requires students to contribute \$330 A YEAR toward the cost of higher education, "instead of the \$7 per year" required previously.

Soaring television costs accounted for MORE THAN HALF the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, "a greater proportion" than in any previous election.

Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly EIGHT MILLION PEOPLE, "about as many" as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

Siberia's Lake Baikal holds 20 PERCENT of the world's fresh water, "more than all" the North American Great Lakes combined.

These sorts of modifiers are VERY COMMON on the GMAT.
COMMA + instead of + noun is simply one example of this type of modifier.

option D: X instead of Y. X = \$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, Y = the \$7 per year required previously

option E: X as opposed to Y. X = \$330 a year, Y = the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education

In D, it is clear why \$330 is required. It is also clear why \$7 was required, because the sentence states the \$7 required previously.
In E, it is not clear why \$330 is required. It is nonetheless clear why \$7 was required previously.

Because of the lack of clarity about \$330 a year in E, D is a better option.
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2017, 02:34
In my opinion, there is another reason why Option (E) is incorrect.

(E) consists of an idiom error, which has probably been overlooked by most of us.

The word "contribute" in GMAT is idiomatically followed by the preposition "to" or "towards" in every sentence, whether it is used as a verb or an infinitive.

Option (E) lacks the preposition "to" or "towards". Hence, it is incorrect.

Refer the article below. I find it helpful in learning a handful of idioms tested on the GMAT.
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-prep ... idioms-to/
Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted   [#permalink] 04 Oct 2017, 02:34

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