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# Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted

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Manager
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 09:24
daagh wrote:
A says that the higher education was previously paying \$7

B The phrase - for which was previously paid \$7 per year - is too awkward to consider
In C - previously \$7 per year - is grammatically wrong. Previously is an adverb and can not modify the noun of \$7

D has no flaws as such and is the best answer.

E -as opposed to -is not the right idiom to describe comparison, unless the arms of the comparison are positioned opposite to the others physically? In a weird way, E may also give the feeling that the students were in fact opposed to the \$7 per year.

Hi daagh,
Pls pardon my ignorance & since nobody has raised this point it feels awkward to be the only one. I eliminated D & E because both use "the"7\$. Is it ok to use the before a particular noun?

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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 13:29
ManishKM1 wrote:
Hi daagh,
Pls pardon my ignorance & since nobody has raised this point it feels awkward to be the only one. I eliminated D & E because both use "the"7\$. Is it ok to use the before a particular noun?

Hello ManishKM1,

Any article - a, an, or the - is used before a noun entity. In Choice D and E, \$7 (7 dollar) per year is a noun entity. Hence, usage of article the before this noun entity is correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 19:36
ashkrs wrote:
Most of Portugal’s 250,000 university students boycotted classes in a one-day strike to
protest a law that requires them to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher
education, previously paying \$7 per year.

A. year toward the cost of higher education, previously paying \$7 per year
B. year toward the cost of higher education, for which was previously paid \$7 per
year
C. year, compared to the previously \$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education
D. year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required
previously
E. year as opposed to the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher
education

A is wrong because it suggests higher education previously paid .
B is in active voice and who paid the money and for which does not make sense .
C previously is incorrectly modifying a noun 7 dollars
D is correct as idiom instead of correctly takes a noun
E is wrong as there is a contrast not comparison and modifiers are not in correct place .
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Re: Most of Portugal s 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2017, 06:59
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A COMMA + VERBing modifier serves to express CONTEMPORANEOUS action: an action attributed to the preceding subject and happening AT THE SAME TIME as -- and often as a result of -- the preceding action.
Thus, A implies the following:
When the students contribute \$330 a year, they are AT THE SAME TIME previously paying \$7 per year.
Not the intended meaning.

B states that students must contribute \$330 a year toward their education, for which was previously paid \$7 per year.
Here, it's unclear WHO previously paid \$7 per year.
Also, a reader might construe that BOTH amounts are being applied to a student's education (the \$330 a year AND the \$7 previously paid).
To make it clear that one amount (\$330 a year) is serving to REPLACE the previous amount (\$7 per year), a word of contrast is needed (such as instead or whereas).
Eliminate B.

In C, previously (adverb) cannot serve to modify the \$7 per year (noun phrase).
Eliminate C.

In E, the reason that students must contribute \$330 a year seems to be conveyed by the modifier required previously for the cost of higher education.
The result is a nonsensical meaning:
A law that REQUIRES them to contribute \$330 a year REQUIRED PREVIOUSLY.
Eliminate E.

Instead of is a preposition that means IN PLACE OF.
Generally, instead of + noun serves as an adverb, indicating that an action is performed upon one thing INSTEAD OF another.

In the SCs below, all of the modifiers within quotes serve the same basic function:
Each serves to FURTHER DEFINE A VALUE IN THE PRECEDING CLAUSE (shown below in upper case letters).

The law requires students to contribute \$330 A YEAR toward the cost of higher education, "instead of the \$7 per year" required previously.

Soaring television costs accounted for MORE THAN HALF the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, "a greater proportion" than in any previous election.

Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly EIGHT MILLION PEOPLE, "about as many" as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

Siberia's Lake Baikal holds 20 PERCENT of the world's fresh water, "more than all" the North American Great Lakes combined.

These sorts of modifiers are VERY COMMON on the GMAT.
COMMA + instead of + noun is simply one example of this type of modifier.

option D: X instead of Y. X = \$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, Y = the \$7 per year required previously

option E: X as opposed to Y. X = \$330 a year, Y = the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education

In D, it is clear why \$330 is required. It is also clear why \$7 was required, because the sentence states the \$7 required previously.
In E, it is not clear why \$330 is required. It is nonetheless clear why \$7 was required previously.

Because of the lack of clarity about \$330 a year in E, D is a better option.
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Anaira Mitch

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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2017, 01:34
In my opinion, there is another reason why Option (E) is incorrect.

(E) consists of an idiom error, which has probably been overlooked by most of us.

The word "contribute" in GMAT is idiomatically followed by the preposition "to" or "towards" in every sentence, whether it is used as a verb or an infinitive.

Option (E) lacks the preposition "to" or "towards". Hence, it is incorrect.

Refer the article below. I find it helpful in learning a handful of idioms tested on the GMAT.
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-prep ... idioms-to/

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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2017, 16:20
anairamitch1804 wrote:
A COMMA + VERBing modifier serves to express CONTEMPORANEOUS action: an action attributed to the preceding subject and happening AT THE SAME TIME as -- and often as a result of -- the preceding action.
Thus, A implies the following:
When the students contribute \$330 a year, they are AT THE SAME TIME previously paying \$7 per year.
Not the intended meaning.

B states that students must contribute \$330 a year toward their education, for which was previously paid \$7 per year.
Here, it's unclear WHO previously paid \$7 per year.
Also, a reader might construe that BOTH amounts are being applied to a student's education (the \$330 a year AND the \$7 previously paid).
To make it clear that one amount (\$330 a year) is serving to REPLACE the previous amount (\$7 per year), a word of contrast is needed (such as instead or whereas).
Eliminate B.

In C, previously (adverb) cannot serve to modify the \$7 per year (noun phrase).
Eliminate C.

In E, the reason that students must contribute \$330 a year seems to be conveyed by the modifier required previously for the cost of higher education.
The result is a nonsensical meaning:
A law that REQUIRES them to contribute \$330 a year REQUIRED PREVIOUSLY.
Eliminate E.

Instead of is a preposition that means IN PLACE OF.
Generally, instead of + noun serves as an adverb, indicating that an action is performed upon one thing INSTEAD OF another.

In the SCs below, all of the modifiers within quotes serve the same basic function:
Each serves to FURTHER DEFINE A VALUE IN THE PRECEDING CLAUSE (shown below in upper case letters).

The law requires students to contribute \$330 A YEAR toward the cost of higher education, "instead of the \$7 per year" required previously.

Soaring television costs accounted for MORE THAN HALF the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, "a greater proportion" than in any previous election.

Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly EIGHT MILLION PEOPLE, "about as many" as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

Siberia's Lake Baikal holds 20 PERCENT of the world's fresh water, "more than all" the North American Great Lakes combined.

These sorts of modifiers are VERY COMMON on the GMAT.
COMMA + instead of + noun is simply one example of this type of modifier.

option D: X instead of Y. X = \$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, Y = the \$7 per year required previously

option E: X as opposed to Y. X = \$330 a year, Y = the \$7 per year required previously for the cost of higher education

In D, it is clear why \$330 is required. It is also clear why \$7 was required, because the sentence states the \$7 required previously.
In E, it is not clear why \$330 is required. It is nonetheless clear why \$7 was required previously.

Because of the lack of clarity about \$330 a year in E, D is a better option.

Hi sayantanc2k,

Welcome back, hope you're doing well
Above, Anaira brings up a very interesting point/a pattern in GMAT.
As she mentions: "In the SCs below, all of the modifiers within quotes serve the same basic function:
Each serves to FURTHER DEFINE A VALUE IN THE PRECEDING CLAUSE (shown below in upper case letters)."

Lets take the sentences she mentions

The law requires students to contribute \$330 A YEAR toward the cost of higher education, "instead of the \$7 per year" required previously.

Soaring television costs accounted for MORE THAN HALF the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, "a greater proportion" than in any previous election.

Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly EIGHT MILLION PEOPLE, "about as many" as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

Siberia's Lake Baikal holds 20 PERCENT of the world's fresh water, "more than all" the North American Great Lakes combined.

Do you think the highlighted clauses/phrases can be classified as Resumptive modifier? or they are not modifier, rather continuation of original sentence.

As always, my SC skills are "iffy", at best. I hope it isn't too bothersome.

Regards
RzS

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Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2017, 02:16
Hello Verbal Experts,

The OA here is D. But, I am not convinced with it.

The idiom used here is X instead of Y, where X and Y both must be parallel.

Here in this option: to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required previously
X=\$330 a year
Y=the \$7 per year

Is the word 'the' before \$7 creating a problem and violating parallelism?

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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2017, 11:41
SidJainGMAT wrote:
Hello Verbal Experts,

The OA here is D. But, I am not convinced with it.

The idiom used here is X instead of Y, where X and Y both must be parallel.

Here in this option: to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required previously
X=\$330 a year
Y=the \$7 per year

Is the word 'the' before \$7 creating a problem and violating parallelism?

Hello SidJainGMAT,

There is no parallelism issue in the correct answer choice.

X=\$330 a year
Y=the \$7 per year

Please note that both the entities are noun phrases. Usage of the article the before the second element does not violate the parallelism in any way.

The elements must have the same role in the sentence to qualify as grammatically parallel elements in the list. They need not be completely identical.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2017, 19:48
egmat wrote:
SidJainGMAT wrote:
Hello Verbal Experts,

The OA here is D. But, I am not convinced with it.

The idiom used here is X instead of Y, where X and Y both must be parallel.

Here in this option: to contribute \$330 a year toward the cost of higher education, instead of the \$7 per year required previously
X=\$330 a year
Y=the \$7 per year

Is the word 'the' before \$7 creating a problem and violating parallelism?

Hello SidJainGMAT,

There is no parallelism issue in the correct answer choice.

X=\$330 a year
Y=the \$7 per year

Please note that both the entities are noun phrases. Usage of the article the before the second element does not violate the parallelism in any way.

The elements must have the same role in the sentence to qualify as grammatically parallel elements in the list. They need not be completely identical.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Now, I am convinced with it..

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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2018, 05:57
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
mvictor wrote:
I could easily eliminate A, B, and E..and between C and D, I picked C.
7\$ -> seven is an adjective - previously modifies the adjective, no? i understand that it is not explicitly written in this form..but in D "instead of" made me think twice whether it is correct...

\$7 is a thing and hence is a noun. Just like 'red car' is a thing.
So the use of previously (an adverb) is wrong here.

Hi Karishma,
I picked D and crossed out C with the below reason. Please let me know that my reason of crossing out C is correct or not.
C- year, compared to the previously \$7 per year, toward the cost of higher education

Here, we have a past participle after comma and compared here is modifying \$330 a year or a year instead of modifying contribution. So, is my reason of omitting C correct?
I failed to notice that previously( an adverb) is modifying a noun ( 7\$ a year)

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Re: Most of Portugals 250,000 university students boycotted   [#permalink] 05 Jan 2018, 05:57

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