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# Most states impose limitations on the authority of the

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Joined: 08 Apr 2013
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 04:18
KyleWiddison wrote:
kuttingchai wrote:
Will vote for C

A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect. - Pronoun "their" is ambiguous - can refer to States or limitations
B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of - of which ??
C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect. - Correct - limitations intended to protect x & y
D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting. - for borrowing money - idiom error
E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting. - for borrowing money - idiom error

Good explanation and the correct answer is C. I should point out a key issue on answer choice A. You cite pronoun ambiguity as the reason to eliminate answer choice A, but the GMAT has shown a surprising tolerance for pronoun ambiguity, so you shouldn't use that for elminations. Stragnely, the GMAT is almost completely intolerant of the word "being" (OG13 #100 is one of the few correct uses of the word being), so you can comfortably eliminate choices with "being".

KW

regarding the problem of pronoun ambiguity

when there are 2 choices, one choice with pronoun ambiguity and other choice with no pronoun ambiguity, other things equal, gmat force deny the pronoun ambiguity. gmat want us to choos the better.

but pronoun ambiguity can appear in the oa in other questions if this choice with the pronuon ambiguity is the best.

the problem is PREFERENCE NOT ABSOLUTE RULE.

in this problem, we can avoid the pronoun ambiguity, so we have to eliminate A without thinking of "being"
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2013, 06:37
JCLEONES wrote:
Most states impose limitations on the authority of the legislature to borrow money,
with their objectives being to protect
taxpayers and the credit of the state government.
A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect.
B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of
C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect.
D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting.
E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting.

I feel the concept tested in this sentence is misplaced Modifier error, which is far worse than any pronoun ambiguity.
A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect. - The modifier objectives seem to modify to borrow money instead of limitations
B. Misplaced modifier same as above
C. Correctly states that the limitations were intended to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government.
D. Same issue as A and B
E. 2nd clause is an independent clause and 2 independent clauses can't be linked with a comma, along with it for borrowing money and with the intent of protecting are not idiomatic in this context.
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2014, 09:45
Hi E-GMAT,

Most states impose limitations on the authority of the legislature to borrow money,
with their objectives being to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government.
A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect.
B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of
C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect.
D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting.
E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting.

My understanding, I'm able to eliminate D & E because its starts with "for borrowing " whereas the sentence demand "to borrow" as sentence says "impose limitation".

and in A&B after "to borrow" i can see the construction is awkward.

But in C could you please explain what is the role of "limitations intended to protect" is it a noun modifier ? or could you please explain the sentence structure of Choice C.

Thanks
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2014, 11:30
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Most states impose limitations on the authority of the legislature to borrow money,
with their objectives being to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government.
A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect.
B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of
C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect.
D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting.
E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting.

My understanding, I'm able to eliminate D & E because its starts with "for borrowing " whereas the sentence demand "to borrow" as sentence says "impose limitation".

and in A&B after "to borrow" i can see the construction is awkward.

But in C could you please explain what is the role of "limitations intended to protect" is it a noun modifier ? or could you please explain the sentence structure of Choice C.

Thanks

This sentence structure uses Appositive. An appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames another word in a sentence. Appositive constructions offer concise ways of describing or defining a person, place, or thing. Although an appositive usually renames a noun in a sentence, it may instead repeat a noun for the sake of clarity and emphasis.

E.g.
We must find a focus in our lives at an early age, a focus that is beyond the mechanics of earning a living or coping with a household.
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2014, 01:14
Hello,
Can anyone explain why in this case we choose 'to borrow money' but not 'for borrowing money'? What is the difference between those? Thanks.
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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20 May 2014, 19:46
Most states impose limitations on the authority of the legislature to borrow money, limitations intended to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government.

but I thought these are two independent sentences connected with comma, wouldn't that be a run-on?
Thanks
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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20 May 2014, 20:47
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The portion after the comma is not an independent sentence; notice the absence of an "are" or "were" before "intended".
"Intended" functions as an adjective providing info. about the limitations.

Look at this shortened version of the sentence, in which it is clear how "intended" modifies "limitations":
Many states impose limitations intended to protect X.

In the given sentence, "on the authority....money" also modifies the limitations. This inclusion makes it difficult to use a pronoun such as "which" before "intended" to refer all the way back to limitations.

To resolve this difficulty, you can either repeat the noun (limitations) or use another noun that expresses the essence of the action that "intended" modifies (e.g."an action").

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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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30 May 2015, 04:52
limitations can not have intent.

so , limitation with intent of doing

is wrong grammatically

persons with intent of getting accepted to a top business school must study verbal hard

is correct.

person intend something
so
something is intended by person
are correct.

a modifier can not go with a noun because the property of noun can not permit. grammar book dose not explain this point. but look at the dictinary we will see that the property of noun, or of verb dicide their modifier.

in the dictionary, we see the phrase "intended for somthing/to do somthing". so, this prove that we can not use "limitaions with intent"

english has one characteristic important, all the phrases are idiom. gmat dose not test rarely used idioms. but nature of english is idiom usage.

I hope anybody give fuller explanation of "limitations with intent" so that we can learn. a professional grammarian is wellcome
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2016, 10:40
Can sum1 pls explain what is the idiom error with borrowing for and how borrow to is correct ?
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Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 06:20
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shonakshi wrote:
Can sum1 pls explain what is the idiom error with borrowing for and how borrow to is correct ?

The problem is not with "borrow", it could have been any other verb. The idiomatic issue lies with "limitation / limit to" and "limitations / limit for". The former is better. The preposition "to" goes better with "limit" / "limitations".

"There is no limit to what I can do" is better than "There is no limit for what I can do".

The preposition "for" indicates the the person or entity for whom the limitaion is applicable:

There is no limitation FOR the guests TO drink.... correct.
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Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2016, 02:11
prasi55 wrote:
The portion after the comma is not an independent sentence; notice the absence of an "are" or "were" before "intended".
"Intended" functions as an adjective providing info. about the limitations.

Look at this shortened version of the sentence, in which it is clear how "intended" modifies "limitations":
Many states impose limitations intended to protect X.

In the given sentence, "on the authority....money" also modifies the limitations. This inclusion makes it difficult to use a pronoun such as "which" before "intended" to refer all the way back to limitations.

To resolve this difficulty, you can either repeat the noun (limitations) or use another noun that expresses the essence of the action that "intended" modifies (e.g."an action").

hi i'm really confused about what does to borrow money modify, could you give me some tips? here is what i think, "to borrow money" directly modify limitations or "to borrow money" firstly modifies "the legislature" then"the Legislature to borrow money" as a whole modifies "the authority" then "on the authority of the legislature to borrow money" modifies "limitations"
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2017, 04:36
C is the correct answer. Limitations intended to.. is called adverbial phrase, modifying the kind of limitations imposed.
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2017, 23:45
Hi experts,

Can someone explain what does the prepositional phrase in A -"with their objectives ... " modify? If I remember corectly, prep modifier can modify the verb so can it give more details about impose limitations?
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2017, 09:22
C is The most correct, but it s grammatically wrong since a comma cannot separate an independent clause

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04 Jul 2017, 11:02
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matt882

1. I couldn't quite get your idea. How can a choice be grammatically incorrect and still the most correct?
2. Which is the independent clause that is separated by a comma? As far as I see, there is only a resumptive modifier (a sort of an appositive) that modifies another noun in the previous part.
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Last edited by daagh on 04 Jul 2017, 11:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2017, 11:37
My bad, 2 times actually.

Regarding the point 2, I read too fast, and was convinced that "intended" worked as a verb.

Thanks for your comment and for pointing out my mistake.

Matt

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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 13:24
Most states impose limitations on the authority of the legislature to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government.

A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect ==> Incorrect usage of "being"
B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of ==> "to protecting" is the correct usage
C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect ==> Correct
D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting ==> "for borrowing" is incorrect, "to borrow" should be used
E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting ==> "for borrowing" is incorrect, "to borrow" should be used

Hence, Answer is C

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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2017, 08:42
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2017, 09:51
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JCLEONES wrote:
Most states impose limitations on the authority of the legislature to borrow money,
with their objectives being to protect
taxpayers and the credit of the state government.
A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect.
B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of
C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect.
D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting.
E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting.

A use of prepositional is wrong as it does not convey the intended meaning .
Moreover the use of " being is incorrect "
B Use of " which " is wrong and we have to use noun form of a word so " protecting " is wrong .
C correct as the second clause gives us extra information regarding the limitations .
D use for is not correct ," to borrow " is idiomatically correct
E same error and again use of with is wrong .
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2017, 10:05
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arvind910619 wrote:
JCLEONES wrote:
Most states impose limitations on the authority of the legislature to borrow money,
with their objectives being to protect
taxpayers and the credit of the state government.
A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect.
B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of
C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect.
D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting.
E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting.

A use of prepositional is wrong as it does not convey the intended meaning .
Moreover the use of " being is incorrect "
B Use of " which " is wrong and we have to use noun form of a word so " protecting " is wrong .
C correct as the second clause gives us extra information regarding the limitations .
D use for is not correct ," to borrow " is idiomatically correct
E same error and again use of with is wrong .

Hello arvind910619,

You have done a great job in solving this one. Keep up the goo work.

I would just like to add my two cents to your analysis of the correct answer choice C.

arvind910619 wrote:
C correct as the second clause gives us extra information regarding the limitations .

Well, in choice C, limitations intended to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government is not a clause. If it were a clause, then the structure of the sentence would become ungrammatical because then the comma would be joining two independent clauses.

The structure limitations intended to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government is a Noun + Noun Modifier in which limitations = Noun and intended to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government = Noun Modifier as intended to protect..., the verb-ed modifier, modifies the preceding noun limitations.

This Noun + Noun Modifier modifies or/and describes limitations, a noun entity in the preceding clause.

For more details, correct usages, and official examples, please review this article on the following link:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/noun-noun-modifiers-the-most-versatile-modifier-137292.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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