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# Most states impose limitations on the authority of the

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Status: Learning
Joined: 20 Dec 2015
Posts: 1203
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Marketing
GMAT 1: 670 Q48 V36
GRE 1: Q157 V157
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WE: Manufacturing and Production (Manufacturing)
Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2017, 10:38
egmat wrote:
arvind910619 wrote:
JCLEONES wrote:
Most states impose limitations on the authority of the legislature to borrow money,
with their objectives being to protect
taxpayers and the credit of the state government.
A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect.
B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of
C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect.
D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting.
E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting.

A use of prepositional is wrong as it does not convey the intended meaning .
Moreover the use of " being is incorrect "
B Use of " which " is wrong and we have to use noun form of a word so " protecting " is wrong .
C correct as the second clause gives us extra information regarding the limitations .
D use for is not correct ," to borrow " is idiomatically correct
E same error and again use of with is wrong .

Hello arvind910619,

You have done a great job in solving this one. Keep up the goo work.

I would just like to add my two cents to your analysis of the correct answer choice C.

arvind910619 wrote:
C correct as the second clause gives us extra information regarding the limitations .

Well, in choice C, limitations intended to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government is not a clause. If it were a clause, then the structure of the sentence would become ungrammatical because then the comma would be joining two independent clauses.

The structure limitations intended to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government is a Noun + Noun Modifier in which limitations = Noun and intended to protect taxpayers and the credit of the state government = Noun Modifier as intended to protect..., the verb-ed modifier, modifies the preceding noun limitations.

This Noun + Noun Modifier modifies or/and describes limitations, a noun entity in the preceding clause.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/noun-noun-modifiers-the-most-versatile-modifier-137292.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thanks for the valuable input .
Now this Noun + Noun modifier is very clear to me .

Could you please explain absolute modifiers and appositives and difference between them .

Regards,
Arvind
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VP
Status: Learning
Joined: 20 Dec 2015
Posts: 1203
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Marketing
GMAT 1: 670 Q48 V36
GRE 1: Q157 V157
GPA: 3.4
WE: Manufacturing and Production (Manufacturing)
Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2017, 19:38
egmat wrote:
arvind910619 wrote:

Thanks for the valuable input .
Now this Noun + Noun modifier is very clear to me .

Could you please explain absolute modifiers and appositives and difference between them .

Regards,
Arvind

Hello arvind910619,

Thank you for the query.

Let me begin my response by a confession. I am super bad with jargon. So before replying to you, I had to Google about "appositives" and "absolute" phrases.

I am sure there may be many others like me who have tough time dealing with such heavy grammatical jargon.

So for the sake of simplicity and easy retention, we have just term for these "appositives" and "absolute" phrases - Noun + Noun Modifier.

If you go through the article the link of which I have provided in my previous response, you will find that Noun + Noun Modifiers can modify either a particular noun in the preceding clause to the entire preceding clause (essentially the preceding action).

So when the Noun + Noun Modifier modifies a particular noun in the preceding clause, then it is called an appositive phrase.

When the Noun + Noun Modifier modifies the preceding clause, then it is called an absolute phrase.

But at e-GMAT, we need not worry about "appositives" and "absolute" phrases because Noun + Noun Modifier is enough to help us solve any SC problem without having to remember these jargon.

I did the sane while solving this particular official sentence and responding to you.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I went through the article and now these two terms are very clear to me .

Regards,
Arvind
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Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2017, 06:23
When "which" is the object of a preposition (to which, of which, for which, etc), the "which" must still replace the noun (or noun phrase) that precedes it.

Correct: She wants to borrow money, of which I don't have much.

In the given sentence, the phrase "the objectives of which" should modify the noun directly before, but it's not the money that has objectives - it's the limitations. We need a different kind of modifier here, with explanations :-

A. to borrow money, with their objectives being to protect taxpayers
"with objectives being" is not idiomatically correct.

B. to borrow money, the objectives of which are the protecting of
As stated above, "of which" is nonsensically modifying "money." Also, "the protecting of" is not idiomatic. "The protection of" or "to protect" would be preferred.

C. to borrow money, limitations intended to protect
Correct. "Limitations" correctly refers to the limitations mentioned earlier, and "to protect" is idiomatically correct.

D. for borrowing money, of which the objective is protecting
The correct idiom is "authority TO" not "authority FOR." The "of which" was also incorrectly modifying "money."

E. for borrowing money, limitations with the intent of protecting
"for" is not idiomatic.

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Thanks & Regards,
Anaira Mitch

Re: Most states impose limitations on the authority of the   [#permalink] 09 Aug 2017, 06:23

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